In Lopez v. Pacific Maritime Associates, the employee plaintiff challenged a union's one-strike rule, which provided that one positive drug or alcohol test during pre-employment testing permanently prohibited the hiring of the applicant. When plaintiff first applied to be a longshoreman in 1997, he was denied employment upon testing positive for marijuana, a result of a drug addiction for which he later sought treatment. Several years later, after becoming sober, he applied again for the longshoreman job but was rejected based on his prior drug testing. He filed a lawsuit challenging the one-strike policy and alleging that it unlawfully discriminated against him on the basis of his protected status as a recovering drug addict. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals (San Francisco) rejected his argument, reasoning that the one-strike policy was based upon legitimate business need, and there was insufficient evidence of a discriminatory intent.