In a recent case, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) was asked to consider whether the Third Life Assurance Directive (3LD) should be interpreted so as to prohibit an insurance company from being required, by an individual Member State, to provide certain information to policyholders in addition to the information required to be provided by the 3LD.   The CJEU ruled that Article 31(3) of the 3LD clearly permits Member States to impose additional information requirements on insurers but only where it is necessary for the policyholder to understand the essential characteristics of the product or policy and the information required to be given is sufficiently clear and accurate in order to achieve that objective and to guarantee a sufficient level of legal certainty.  The CJEU also ruled that insurers must be able to identify and foresee what additional information they must provide.