A study by University of Maryland researchers has purportedly found that adolescents and young adults whose consumption of energy drinks continued or increased after age 21 are at increased risk of alcohol use disorder, cocaine use or nonmedical stimulant use by age 25. Amelia M. Arria, et al., “Trajectories of energy drink consumption and subsequent drug use during young adulthood,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, August 7, 2017. The study recruited subjects at age 18 and tracked their consumption of highly caffeinated energy drinks through age 25. Although overall consumption declined after age 21 and 20.6 percent of that age group did not consume the drinks at all, 51.4 percent of the subjects apparently demonstrated “persistent” use that predicted alcohol, cocaine or stimulant abuse.