On 24 October 2008, the European Commission (Commission) concluded that the proposed acquisition of IKON by Ricoh did not raise any competition concerns. IKON, a public company listed on the New York stock exchange, is a wholesale distributor of document management systems, including office automation equipment. Ricoh is a publicly-owned company active in the manufacturing and distribution of office automation equipment. The Commission's examination of the proposed merger found two areas of concern. These were, firstly, the impact of an overlap in the market for wholesale distribution of office equipment and, secondly, with respect to the vertically-affected market for the manufacturing of black and white photocopiers. However, it concluded that the overlaps were limited and the combined firm would continue to face several strong competitors. Further, customers would continue to have access to a number of alternative sources.