Finance & Projects
The New Gross Split PSC; Problem Solved?
For More Information:
Norman Bissett +62 21 2960 8600 email@example.com
John Phillips Sitepu +62 21 2960 8541 john.sitepu@ bakernet.com
Christofer Chandra +62 21 2960 8532 christofer.chandra@ bakernet.com
The Special Taskforce for Upstream Oil and Gas Business Activities (SKK MIGAS) has issued the latest draft of the gross split production sharing contract (PSC) for the Indonesian 2018 oil and gas bid round.
We have prepared a summary of the differences between the gross split PSC and the conventional cost recovery PSC. Not surprisingly, the two documents are very similar - SKK MIGAS has essentially taken the conventional cost recovery PSC and replaced the cost recovery provisions with the various base split adjustments/sliding scale adjustments to be incorporated into the gross split regime.
However, there are a few key points to note in respect of the gross split PSC:
The new PSC reflects the increased incentives granted to gross split PSCs by Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Regulation No. 08 of 2017 on Gross Split Production Sharing Contract (as amended by Regulation No. 52 of 2017 of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources) (Regulation 8 of 2017).
There is a continuing domestic market obligation (DMO) for oil, as well as for gas. As a welcome relief, however, in line with Regulation 8 of 2017, the price set for DMO oil is the Indonesia Crude Oil (ICP) price.
The new form of PSC contains additional requirements in relation to sourcing/import of goods and equipment. It says nothing about the PTK 0071 guidelines not applying. Accordingly, it is not yet clear whether the new form of PSC will, in fact, significantly reduce bureaucratic oversight by SKK MIGAS. But some provisions of Regulation 8 of 2017, ie, articles 18(2) (which refers to "independent" procurement by contractor) and 23(1) (under which SKK MIGAS' key function is to supervise contractors' work programme and budgeting process) may - perhaps - offer a little comfort in this regard.
Counter-intuitively, given the absence of a cost recovery regime, title in goods and equipment that are not otherwise leased to the PSC contractor continue to belong to the Government. The rationale for this is unclear (although it would seem to be premised on the argument that the Government is still paying for these through tax deductions).
1 SKK MIGAS Guideline No. PTK-007/SKKMA0000/2017/S0
The tax provisions are complex to read. However, income tax is still set at the rate prevailing when the PSC is signed. In addition, among other deductible costs (in respect of which no value added tax (VAT) will be levied either), shared facility costs and indirect overhead charges are deductible.
The PSC makes very clear that the contractor bears the risk of local Government taxes/levies. This is probably a fairly accurate reflection of what the position is under the current cost recovery PSC.
In line with Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Regulation No. 48 of
2017 on Supervision of the Implementation of Business Activities in the
Field of Energy and Mineral Resources, changes in control happening at
the level of the PSC party require Government approval. However, perhaps
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as an unanticipated consequence, control is defined widely, to also capture indirect changes in control. There is no longer what used to be interpreted as a package exemption, where a change in control is part of a larger set of transactions.
The PSC seems to anticipate that there may be adjustments to the Firm Commitment, after the contract is awarded. As we can see no real reason why the Firm Commitment would ever be adjusted upwards, query whether this change is designed to accommodate a downward revision to the Firm Commitment (as part of an upward adjustment by an affiliated company under another PSC?).
The amount of the performance bond to be submitted when applying for the PSC is still set at USD1,500,000. This is in line with Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Regulation No. 35 of 2008 on the Procedures for Offering Oil and Gas Work Areas, under which the amount of the bond should be the higher of USD1,500,000 or 10% of the Firm Commitment.
Notwithstanding that the forms of agreement are substantially similar, the gross split PSCs offer a radical, conceptual break from the cost recovery PSC previously championed by Indonesia. It remains to be seen whether the Government has done enough to make the production splits in the gross split PSC sufficiently attractive - and definite - to oil and gas companies. Given the discretionary/variable elements that apply to these splits, any optimism that the new PSC format will be well received may be misplaced.
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2 The New Gross Split PSC, Problem Solved? April 2018
COST RECOVERY PSC
GROSS SPLIT PSC
Parties: (1) SKK MIGAS and (2) Contractor; "approved" by Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) for Government of Indonesia (GoI).
Effective date: On the date of GoI approval (ie, execution).
Term: 30 years from the Effective Date (Art. 2.1.1).
To note - under both the cost recovery and the gross split PSCs: Contactor parties are jointly and severally
liable. Change of Operator, as well as direct or
indirect transfers of interest, need SKK MIGAS approval.
2. Contract extension
The original six-year exploration period may be extended for four years (Art. 2.1.2).
The PSC does not contain any provisions allowing the PSC to be extended beyond its 30year term.
Extension of Exploration Period (Art. 2.1.2(b))
SKK Migas may use the following bases for approving an extension: Contractor's exploration activity; fulfilment of Contractor's financial obligations.
Investment to the end of Exploitation Period (Art. 2.5.1 - 2)
Contractor shall maintain production [levels] through to the expiry of the PSC, subject to SKK MIGAS approval.
If investment costs exceed what can be recovered in the remaining PSC period, the investment will be one of the factors borne in mind by the GoI in granting / rejecting the PSC extension.
3. Contract area (km2)
Initially the area is approximately [*] square kilometres. Relinquishment as follows:
(a) 25% of Contract Area to be relinquished after three years (art 3.1); plus an additional 15% if initial work program is not completed (Art. 3.2).
(b) Contract Area not to exceed 20% of original total Contract Area after six years (Art. 3.3) unless a discovery exceeds that area (Art. 3.4).
(c) Any exploration area remaining after year 6 is subject to reasonable exploration activities (Art. 3.5).
(d) Upon notice from SKK MIGAS in respect of an area in which no exploration activities were conducted for two years, Contractor must elect to either (i) conduct exploration within six months of such notice and immediately submit a POD or (ii) relinquish the Area (Art. 3.5).
3 The New Gross Split PSC, Problem Solved? April 2018
4. Current status
COST RECOVERY PSC
GROSS SPLIT PSC
Note: Art. 2.2.4: if Contractor has received
approval to develop a first field, but does not produce petroleum within five years of the exploration period, Contractor must relinquish the Contract Area to GoI. Art. 2.2.5: With regard to a commercial discovery of natural gas, if it is expected that during such five-year time period Contractor will not have entered into a GSA, SKK MIGAS may grant Contractor's request to extend that five-year limit.
(a) Similar, but:
(i) The first three contract years and
Contractor may submit revision of the Firm
associated work obligations are compulsory for Contractor (the `Firm Commitment') (Art. 4.2).
Commitment (to reduce investment / change nature)? (Art. 4.2) The amount of the performance bond is set at
(ii) Contractor may not terminate PSC during this time (Art. 13.1).
USD1,500,000. The value of the performance bond can be reduced if the value of the Firm
(iii) If at the end of the third contract year,
Commitment not carried out is less than the
Contractor has not completed the Firm
Commitment, Contractor may
The performance bond is to be extended
terminate but will not be relieved of its
through to completion of the Firm
obligations until the unspent portion of
the estimated expenditure for the
If Contractor elects to extend the Exploration
unperformed work is transferred to the
Period, the commitments in years 7 and 8 will
GoI. include the year 1 - 6 commitments and must
(iv) Contractor must submit a performance bond for the benefit of GoI for the fulfilment of the "Firm Commitment".
be fulfilled by year 8, failing which SKK MIGAS may terminate PSC.
(b) The second three years are `optional' Contractor may terminate the agreement
and relinquish the Contract Area (Art. 13.2) without the `penalties' that apply during
contract years 1-3.
(c) Note that no guarantee is required for years
(d) After year 6, Contractor may (in accordance
with the terms of the PSC) elect to extend the exploration period. In such case, the
commitments in years 7 and 8 (which may
include year 1 - 6 commitments) must be fulfilled by year 8, failing which PSC will
4 The New Gross Split PSC, Problem Solved? April 2018
COST RECOVERY PSC
GROSS SPLIT PSC
5. Government backin right
SKK MIGAS has the right to require Contractor to transfer a 10% participating interest to a local government company, in the first instance, which failing to an Indonesian national company designated by GoI, the shareholders of which shall be Indonesian nationals (Art. 16.1). This right lapses unless exercised by SKK MIGAS within one month of Contractor notifying the GoI of its first commercial discovery (Art. 16.2). The Indonesian participant must reimburse Contractor 10% of the historical Operating Costs incurred in the Contract Area (Art. 16.8).
Local participation rights are granted to local Government Companies (LGOC) only (Art. 16). These are companies that are effectively wholly (99% - 100%) owned by the local Government; established by local Government regulation.
Note: No consideration is payable by LGOC. Schedule D anticipates a "cooperation" scheme, similar to a carry.
During the Contract period, LGOC shall not dispose of any part of its 10% Participating Interest, and LGOC's shareholders are restricted from transferring their shares.
6. Fiscal terms
Key fiscal terms are as follows:
(a) Contractor pays a signature bonus (which is not cost recoverable) of US$[*] (Art. 8.1) and US$[*] worth of equipment and services in the first contract year at the request of the GoI (Art. 8.2).
(b) Contractor pays production bonuses (which are not cost recoverable) of US$[*], US$[*] and US$[*] on reaching cumulative production of each of [*] MMboe, [*] MMboe and [*] MMboe, respectively (Art. 8.3-8.5).
(c) 20% of total petroleum production in each year (`first tranche petroleum' or FTP) is shared between SKK MIGAS and Contractor in accordance with their Profit Oil / Gas Shares (Art. 6.4.1).
(d) Contractor has the right to recover Operating Costs against available production as follows:
(i) Operating Costs are defined in the PSC (Exhibit C, Art. 2.1) to include depreciated capital costs and noncapital costs in relation to each year's operations, such as labour and materials, services, plus the costs of surveys and the intangible costs of drilling exploratory and development wells.
(ii) Non-capital costs are expensed while capital costs are generally depreciated using the declining balance method. Different depreciation rates apply to different classes of assets.
(iii) Separate calculations are done for
Material changes on the key fiscal terms are as follows:
(a) Removal of the provisions regarding signature and production bonus payment.
(b) Removal of Contractor's right to recover the Operating Costs. Instead:
Contractor has the right to calculate Operating Cost as a deduction for tax purposes. Capex costs are depreciated at the same rates as cost-recovery PSC.
In Exhibit C, Operating Costs are defined as expenditure and obligations incurred in carrying out Petroleum Operations, including expenditure on tangible assets (Capital and Non Capital Costs) and intangible assets (Capital and Non Capital Costs).
(c) New provisions on the calculation of oil and gas profit share are as follows:
Profit oil and gas share.
Contractor: Base Split + Variable Component + Progressive Component
Crude Oil Base Split - 57% to SKK MIGAS and 43% to Contractor.
Natural Gas Base Split - 52% to SKK MIGAS and 48% to Contractor.
The sum derived from the above formula is adjusted by the Variable Component and the Progressive Component applicable to each field at the time commercial production begins (Art. 6.2.3).
(d) Note: continuing DMO obligations, made at 100% of ICP.
5 The New Gross Split PSC, Problem Solved? April 2018
COST RECOVERY PSC
GROSS SPLIT PSC
oil and gas.
(iv) Excess gas costs can be recovered from oil revenues (and vice versa).
(v) Unrecovered costs can be carried forward to future years for cost recovery purposes.
(vi) Interest on intra-group and third
party loans may be recoverable at rates `not exceeding prevailing commercial rates'. In practice,
interest is not deductible.
(e) Profit oil share is split 58.333% to SKK
MIGAS, 41.666% to Contractor in the case
of crude (including condensate) tertiary
reservoir production (Art. 6.2.3). Different
Contractor shares can apply for other
projects. Profit gas share is split 41.6667% to SKK MIGAS and 58.333% to
Contractor (Art. 6.3.2).
(f) A percentage of Contractors' share of Profit
Oil is required to satisfy domestic market
obligations (DMO), such percentage not to
exceed 25% of the oil produced from the Contract Area multiplied by Contractor
Profit Oil Share, Contractor is to sell DMO (i) Profit Oil at 25% of the generally applicable
market price. However, DMO Profit Oil is to
be paid for at full price during the first
five years after commencement of
production. The PSC also provides for
DMO on natural gas but DMO gas is paid
for at 100% of the contract price.
(g) Contractor pays `income tax including the
final tax on profits after tax deduction
imposed on it under the Indonesian Income (j) Tax Law (art 5.2.23). In practice,
Contractor is required to pay Indonesian
corporate taxes at an effective rate of 25% on profits after tax deduction, if applicable, (k)
of the revenue from the sale of its Profit Oil
Share and Profit Gas Share (including its
share of FTP).
(h) An administration fee of US$[*] is payable (Art. 5.3.3) by Contractor to SKK MIGAS at the start of each contract year to cover administrative requirements such as transport, visas and security requirements and further advances may be payable in
New provision regarding Production Share Adjustment, as mentioned below:
If the calculation of the returns on a field does not reach a certain economic level, the Minister can allocate an additional production sharing percentage to Contractor.
However, where the commercialization of a fields exceeds a certain economic level, the Minister can stipulate an additional production sharing percentage with SKK MIGAS.
Such stipulation of additional percentage shall only be made once for each POD. New provisions regarding SKK Migas' obligation in relation to tax matters, as mentioned in paragraph (i) below.
To note, Contractor freezes the income tax rate as at the date of PSC (Art. 5.2.23 and definition section of Indonesia Income Tax Law). However, Contractor bears the local Government tax risk (Art.s 5.2.25 and 5.2.26).
Contrary to Art. 1.1.6(f), Contractor's tax liability is several.
SKK MIGAS agrees to bear import duties and Value-added Tax on materials, equipment and supplies imported in connection with Petroleum Operations and 100% of land and building tax (except for any local Government taxes imposed in connection with the Contract Area), imposed on exploration and exploitation activities until commencement of commercial production as required by laws (Art. 5.2.26).
Shared facility costs and overhead costs are tax deductible (Art. 5.2.26).
Note: provisions entitling GoI to take tax in kind, under both cost recovery and gross split PSC.
6 The New Gross Split PSC, Problem Solved? April 2018
7. Hydrocarbon pricing
COST RECOVERY PSC
GROSS SPLIT PSC
addition to this amount where requested by SKK MIGAS.
(i) SKK MIGAS agrees to bear import and export duties on materials, equipment and supplies brought into Indonesia by Contractor in connection with Petroleum Operations (Art. 5.2.25).
Note: Art. 15.5.1 provides that the fiscal
percentages under the PSC assume Contractor is subject to dividend tax on after tax profits under Art. 26(4) of the Indonesian Income Tax Law and is not sheltered by any double-tax treaty to which the GoI is a party. Those percentages are to be revised if any portion of Contractor's participating interest becomes subject to a tax treaty, so as to maintain the same net income after tax. Art. 15.5.2 provides that if Contractor at any time during the PSC term pays less than the amount stipulated in that same Art. 26(4) due to double-tax treaty sheltering, Contractor must `refund to SKK MIGAS an amount equal in value to the additional amount of production share enjoyed by Contractor due to such sheltering.
Crude Oil valued at (i) the weighted average ICP paid by 3rd parties; where sales are to
per unit price received by Contractor / SKK Affiliates, ICP during the three months preceding
MIGAS from sales to third parties during the such sale is used.
preceding three months, adjusted as needed Note: SKK MIGAS has the right to require sales of
or, if no third party sales have been made, crude oil to domestic refineries, where there is not
then used to value ICP of similar quality.
sufficient production from SKK MIGAS's share.
There are no separate valuation provisions (Art. 7.1.7).
Natural Gas is valued at contract sales
7 The New Gross Split PSC, Problem Solved? April 2018
8. Assignment / change of control
COST RECOVERY PSC
GROSS SPLIT PSC
Contractor may assign to its affiliate with GoI's consent through SKK Migas (Art. 5.2.7) and to a third party with the consent of GoI through SKK MIGAS (Art. 5.2.8), which consent is not to be unreasonably withheld. No assignee is to hold an interest in more than one PSC at a time.
Contractor is to obtain the approval of GoI through SKK MIGAS prior to any proposed direct or indirect Change of Control, which approval is not to be unreasonably withheld (Art. 5.2.9).
Control is defined as ownership (direct or indirect) of at least 50% of the management rights of the company (Art 1.2.11). Change of control is defined as `any direct or indirect change of Control of a Participating Interest Holder (whether through merger, sale of shares or other equity interests, or otherwise) through a single transaction or series of related transactions in which the Participating Interest is the only substantive asset involved in that series of related transactions.' (Art. 1.2.7).
Transfer of Participating Interest - same.
Contractor to obtain approval of GoI through SKK MIGAS for any direct Change of Control, which approval is not to be unreasonably withheld (Art. 5.2.9).
Contractor to notify GoI, through SKK MIGAS, prior to any proposed indirect Change of Control.
Control means direct ownership (by a holding company one level up) or indirect ownership through (a) majority ownership of the voting stock, if the company is a corporation issuing stock, or (b) majority ownership of the controlling rights or interests, if the other entity is not a corporation issuing stock, or (c) an agreement designated by the shareholders of stock/interest to vote for a Controller (art 1.2.17). Change of control means `any direct or indirect change of Control of a Participating Interest Holder (whether through merger, sale of shares or other equity interests, or otherwise) through a single transaction or series of related transaction. (e.g., Art. 1.2.14).
Note: No package sale exemption.
Contractor is, on termination of the PSC or development of any field, to remove all installations from the area in a manner acceptable to SKK MIGAS and perform all necessary site restoration activities in accordance with applicable regulations. Contractor to include in each plan of development an abandonment and site restoration program together with a funding procedure for such program (art 5.2.6).
Sums estimated to be required for this program are to be determined each year in conjunction with the Budget of Operating Costs for the plan of development and treated as Operating Costs. Such sums to be deposited in an escrow account controlled by Contractor and SKK MIGAS (Art. 5.2.6(e)).
8 The New Gross Split PSC, Problem Solved? April 2018
11. Local participation / content
COST RECOVERY PSC
GROSS SPLIT PSC
Contractor to: conduct an environmental baseline
assessment at the beginning of Contractor's activities (Art. 5.2.6(a)); and take precautions for protection of ecological systems, navigation and fishing and prevent pollution (Art. 5.2.6(b)).
give preference to Indonesian goods and services provided they are offered "at legally advantageous conditions" with regard to quality, price, availability at the time and in the quantities required (Art. 5.2.21);
employ qualified Indonesian personnel and undertake training of such personnel (Art. 12.1); and
provide funds and conduct development programs for the community near the Contract Area (at Contractor's expense) (Art. 5.2.22).
In addition to the terms included in the costs recovery PSC, the Gross Split PSC has further terms regulating the import of foreign goods and technology; such goods can only be imported if they are not produced in Indonesia and do not meet Indonesian national quality standards.
In addition, Contractor shall prioritise Indonesian goods and services in accordance with applicable laws/regulations.
All goods and equipment purchased by Contractor pursuant to the Work Program and Budget used directly in Petroleum Operations become the property of the Republic of Indonesia.
Title in leased equipment belonging to third parties who perform services as a Contractor (Art. 10) does not transfer.
Goods and equipment purchased by Contractor pursuant to a Work Program and Budget used directly in Petroleum Operations become the property of the Republic of Indonesia, other than leased equipment belonging to third party service providers.
Excess inventory may be transferred to other Contractors in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.
Land acquired by Contractor becomes the property of the GoI, and shall be certified in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.
Contractor must maintain sufficient insurance during the term of the PSC, including on Petroleum kept in storage before delivery. Insurance must be with established insurers doing business in Indonesia and be on terms approved by SKK MIGAS. SKK MIGAS will be named as co-insured and Contractor must obtain waivers of subrogation in favour of the GoI and SKK MIGAS. (all under Art. 5.2.28).
9 The New Gross Split PSC, Problem Solved? April 2018
14. Force majeure
15. Liabilities 16. Terminat-
17. Dispute resolution
COST RECOVERY PSC
GROSS SPLIT PSC
Applies to circumstances beyond the control and
without the fault or negligence of the relevant party that may "affect economically or otherwise the continuation of operations" under the PSC (Art. 1.2.19). Where it applies, failure to perform is excused and the timetable is extended (Art. 15.4.3).
Note: Under both forms of PSC, GoI agreement needed to be able to declare FM; if no agreement, remedy is to arbitrate.
No provisions expressly allocating liability between SKK MIGAS and Contractor for, e.g., injury or death to personnel, third party claims.
SKK MIGAS may issue a notice to Contractor for failure to perform as a reasonable/prudent operator and failure to fulfil any of its obligations under the PSC (Art. 13.5). Contractor has a 120day cure period after which, absent an agreement between the parties to extend that period, SKK MIGAS has `conclusive evidence' of Contractor's breach of the PSC and may terminate the agreement (Art. 13.5).
Note: a number of termination rights are common to both forms of PSCs (2.1.3 - no discovery, 2.2.4 - delay in developing POD, 2.2.5 - delay in executing GSA, 4.5 - delay in carrying out work commitments accrued through to year 8).
Governed by Indonesian law (Art. 15.3.1). UNCITRAL arbitration conducted in English. Seat of arbitration in Indonesia. Arbitrators appointed by ICSID if parties fail to do so (Art. 11.3).
To note: in both forms of PSC, Bahasa Indonesia version governs contract.
There is a limited tax stabilisation provision. It provides that if the prevailing Indonesian tax laws change such that the percentage shares of Profit Oil under Art. 6 changes, then the terms of the PSC are to be revised to maintain the same net income after tax for Contractor (Art. 15.5.3).
10 The New Gross Split PSC, Problem Solved? April 2018