On 4 March 2013, the EU and Canada signed an agreement on customs cooperation on matters of supply chain security and risk management. This agreement builds on an existing customs cooperation agreement but also includes provisions reinforcing the customs related aspects for securing the logistics chain of international trade. The purpose of the cooperation agreement is to work towards mutual recognition of risk management techniques, risk standards, security controls, and trade partnership programmes (i.e. the EU’s Authorised Economic Operator (AEO) programme, and Canada’s Partners in Protection (PIP) programme).