Representatives of the American Petroleum Institute and the National Petrochemical and Refiners Association testified before the House Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee on Energy and Environment November 2 that a pending Environmental Protection Agency rule that would limit the sulfur content of gasoline could conflict with other air pollution regulations and drive up fuel production costs. EPA is expected to propose the Tier 3 rule, which would establish emissions standards for light-duty vehicles and their fuels, in December, with a final rule by October 2012. Upon releasing a cost report October 31, the National Association of Clean Air Agencies said that EPA should propose strengthening standards for sulfur content in vehicle fuel and vehicle emissions standards this year. To help meet air quality standards for ozone and other pollutants, state and municipalities need the agency to update Tier 3 standards for light-duty vehicles and to lower the sulfur content in fuel. State regulators and clean air advocates favor reducing the allowable sulfur content in gasoline from 30 parts per million to 10 ppm, which is estimated to increase gasoline prices by less than 1 cent per gallon.