We are once again pleased to offer our loyal readers our annual analysis of the five most intriguing developments in EEOC litigation in 2016, along with a pre-publication preview of our annual report on developments and trends in EEOC-initiated litigation. That book, titled EEOC-Initiated Litigation: FY 2016, is a thorough analysis of the lawsuits that were filed by the EEOC in FY 2016 (spanning October 2015 through September 2016), and the major decisions impacting EEOC litigation.
We have analyzed those filings and decisions to provide our loyal readers with a comprehensive examination of trends affecting EEOC litigation. Every employer wants to avoid becoming a target of a government lawsuit. We believe the best way to do that is to develop a clear understanding of the EEOC’s enforcement agenda, litigation activities, and priorities. Our annual report is intended to give corporate counsel, HR professionals, and other decision-makers the tools they need to keep their companies out of the line of fire.
This year’s report once again analyzes enforcement trends impacting employers in the retail, hospitality, manufacturing, healthcare, national resources/construction, and business services industries. That analysis can be found here.
We have also organized the substantive developments according to the EEOC’s strategic priorities. FY 2016 was the last year of the EEOC’s 2012 Strategic Enforcement Plan (SEP). Now is a perfect time to look back and take stock of what the EEOC has actually done with respect to each of those priorities over the past four years. We think our readers will benefit from understanding how the EEOC interpreted and advanced those priorities over the past four years, especially since the new SEP (covering FY 2017-2013) identifies the exact same priorities.
The full publication will be offered for download as an eBook. To order a copy, please click here.
We always like to end our year with a look back at some of the most interesting decisions and developments of the year. Here is our list of the “top five” most intriguing developments of 2016:
FY 2017-2021 Strategic Enforcement Plan
In FY 2016, the EEOC created and announced a new SEP for fiscal years 2017 through 2021. The new SEP establishes the enforcement priorities that will guide its enforcement efforts over the next four years. Our readers can read all about it here. We closely monitored how the EEOC adjusted its tactics and enforcement agenda in light of its previous SEP and found that it was a reliable guide to how the EEOC pursues its enforcement agenda. The same will probably be true of the new SEP as well.
The new SEP identifies the same six priorities as the earlier SEP. However, it added two substantive areas of focus regarding what it sees as developing and emerging issues in the workplace. Those include “complex” employment relationships, such as temporary workers, staffing agencies, independent contractor relationships, and those that arise in the on-demand economy. The EEOC also identified “backlash discrimination” against Muslims, Sikhs, and other persons of Arab, Middle Eastern, or South Asian descent. Employers that operate within any of the “complex” employment relationships identified by the EEOC, or who employ sizable populations of Muslim or Middle Eastern workers, should take heed.
Continuing Impact Of Mach Mining v. EEOC, 135 S. Ct. 1645 (2015).
In Mach Mining, LLC v. EEOC, the Supreme Court unanimously held that the EEOC’s statutorily-required conciliation activities are subject to judicial review. At the same time, however, the Court outlined a very narrow scope of that review. The Court then left it to the lower courts to harmonize those two aspects of its ruling. Despite some initial victories for employers, courts deciding cases in FY 2016 have tended to find that the EEOC had met its obligation, even when the evidence amounted to little more than the EEOC’s say-so and was contradicted by the employer. The die is not cast just yet, but if this trend continues, it may become much more difficult for employers to contest the EEOC’s “take it or leave it” approach to the conciliation process. Our analysis of this trend can be found here.
Continued Focus On LGBT Discrimination
The EEOC has expended considerable effort advocating for the protection of LGBT rights under the existing anti-discrimination laws. In 2012, it decided – in its own administrative decision – that transgender discrimination is a form of sex discrimination because it is tantamount to discrimination on the basis of a perceived failure to adhere to gender stereotypes. Over the next few years it successfully used that decision to obtain favorable precedent in the federal courts. The EEOC is now using the same tactics to try to establish that Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. On July 15, 2015, the EEOC issued another administrative opinion, which held that Title VII extends to claims of sexual orientation discrimination. It then filed two lawsuits in FY 2016 that allege sexual orientation discrimination, one of which survived a motion to dismiss. Employers should expect that these LGBT issues will remain a centerpiece of the EEOC’s enforcement agenda under the new SEP. Our discussion of these developments can be found here.
New EEO-1 Reporting Requirements
The EEO-1 Report requires employers with more than 100 employees (and federal contractors or subcontractors with more than 50 employees) to collect and provide to the EEOC certain demographic information in each of ten job categories. On February 1, 2016, the EEOC proposed changes to the EEO-1 report, which would require employers to submit employee compensation data by gender, race, and ethnicity. Unless implementation is delayed or stopped, employers will have to start filing these new reports on March 31, 2018. Many employers expect and fear that the EEOC will use this new data to bring more lawsuits under the EPA and Title VII alleging wage discrimination. We discuss these new regulations here.
The most significant political development that will shape the EEOC’s agenda in the coming years is the election of Trump as the next president of the United States. For at least the first two years of Trump’s administration, he will have a Republican majority in both houses of Congress. The EEOC has increasingly relied on large, high-impact “systemic” cases to push forward its strategic goals. These types of cases can have a big impact because they tend to affect a larger number of employees and employers. But those tactics have also been roundly criticized by Republican members of Congress and are a likely target for reform under the new Republican leadership. At minimum, the new administration will bring significant changes to the high-level leadership at the EEOC. That alone will have a significant impact on the EEOC’s strategic direction. Our predictions regarding these changes can be found here.
FY 2016 is shaping up to be a fulcrum year in terms of the EEOC’s enforcement agenda. Not only does it mark the end of the FY 2013-2016 SEP and the beginning of a new SEP, but also it brings with it the uncertainty of an entirely new political climate and a change-over in the party occupying the White House. In that kind of environment, the only thing that is certain is change itself. We do not know exactly what to expect, but we look forward to reporting on those changes as they happen.
We wish all a happy and safe New Year!
Readers can also find this post on our Workplace Class Action blog here.