On May 12, 2016, the Fair Trade Commission (the “FTC”) issued a ruling explaning the following: a concerted action refers to actions taken together by competing businesses.  Affiliates within or under the control of the same group have one and the same interest and are not in competition with each other.  When affiliates follow the group’s policy in conducting economic activities, such affiliates are not economically independent and cannot be said to have the ability to make their own decisions.  Such activities, therefore, cannot be said to constitute concerted action.