The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a rule on May 8, 2013, establishing new data submission requirements for antimicrobial products registered as pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). 78 Fed. Reg. 26,935 (5/8/13). The antimicrobial pesticides rule applies to marine antifoulants, antimicrobial pesticides and wood preservatives. Among other matters, the rule changes some existing requirements and adds “newly codified data requirements, i.e., data requirements that are not currently identified in 40 CFR part 161, but are considered in current practice on a case-by-case basis.” EPA estimates that the average cost per registration for new antimicrobial active ingredients will be between $1 million and $5 million. For existing chemicals, EPA estimates that the new requirements during periodic registration reviews will cost between $260,000 and $588,000.