Elvira Jimenez brought a race discrimination lawsuit in 2000 against Madison Area Technical College and three of its employees (Carol Bassett, Jackie Thomas, and William Stryker). Her lawyer was Willie Nunnery. The suit was dismissed as frivolous -- Nunnery was sanctioned and lost his law license for a period of time because of his involvement in the case. On two separate occasions in the following few years, Judy Norman-Nunnery applied for positions at the College. Norman-Nunnery is an African-American woman and is married to Willie Nunnery. In 2002, she made it through an initial screening but was not interviewed. In 2005, she was encouraged to apply for a different position by the College's minority recruiter and Eugene Fujimoto, its Diversity Coordinator. Carol Bassett screened the 77 applicants for minimum qualifications. Norman-Nunnery and 45 others advanced. At that point, a five-person selection committee chaired by Jackie Thomas developed a weighted scoring system with five criteria. Each committee member separately scored the remaining 46 candidates. The College selected the top 10 to interview. Norman-Nunnery was not in the top 10. In fact, only one minority candidate made the list. Under the College’s diversity policy, it added the next two highest-scoring minority candidates to the interview list. Norman-Nunnery was not one of those two, either. Fujimoto met with Basset, Thomas, and William Stryker to discuss why Norman-Nunnery did not make the cut. They told him that she did not score well on two of the five criteria. Although he advised Bassett, Thomas, and Stryker that her resume may not have accurately reflected her experience, they chose not to add her to the interview list. A white woman was hired for the job. Norman-Nunnery filed suit against the College as well as Bassett, Stryker, and Thomas. She alleged violations of Title VII, the 1st and 14th amendment, and § 1981 for discriminating against her on account of her race and her association with her husband. Judge Crabb (W.D. Wis.) granted summary judgment to the defendants on the ground that no rational jury could conclude that race or marital status was the motivation for the defendants' actions. Norman-Nunnery appeals.

In their opinion, Chief Judge Easterbrook and Judges Bauer and Rovner affirmed. The Court first addressed Norman-Nunnery's argument that she was entitled to a spoliation inference due to the unexplained loss of a number of documents relevant to her claim. It concluded that she was not. To be entitled to an inference that the missing documents would support her claim, she must show that the documents were intentionally destroyed in bad faith in order to hide adverse information. Here, the files were lost before any claim was made and there is no evidence that they were intentionally destroyed in order to cover up harmful evidence. The Court cited the fact that the office in which they were located had moved twice, that the filing system was haphazard, and that in fact most of the documents relevant to the claim were not lost. Without evidence of a bad-faith motive, Norman-Nunnery is not entitled to a favorable inference. On the merits, Norman-Nunnery proceeded under both the direct and indirect approaches. Her only claimed direct evidence, however, once the inference was rejected, is an unscientific study that concluded that the College's selection process favored internal candidates. Since most internal candidates were not minorities, the process therefore favored non-minorities. The Court stated that such a study cannot, by itself, meet the standard for a discrimination claim and rejected the claim under the direct method. In reviewing a case like this under the indirect method, the analysis of the prima facie case and the defendants' non-discriminatory reason response frequently overlap. Norman-Nunnery must show that she was qualified and that defendants rejected her in favor of someone of like qualifications. The defendants, on the other hand, assert as their non-discriminatory reason that Norman-Nunnery was not as qualified as those interviewed and as the individual who was hired. The undisputed facts in this case established that the defendants applied the same criteria to all applicants and made their decision based on the applicants' qualifications. Summary judgment on her race discrimination claim was appropriate. For much the same reason, the Court rejected her claim that she was discriminated against because of her husband. There was some evidence that at least some of the defendants knew who her husband was and continued to have negative feelings about him. There was no evidence, however, that the defendants made their hiring decisions because of him.