Types of liquidation and reorganisation processes

Voluntary liquidations

What are the requirements for a debtor commencing a voluntary liquidation case and what are the effects?

Chapter 7 governs liquidation and is commenced by filing a petition in the bankruptcy court in the judicial district where the company is incorporated or has its principal place of business or assets or, in the case of an individual, where he or she has a domicile or residence. Filing the Chapter 7 petition immediately triggers the automatic stay and enjoins most creditor enforcement actions. It also creates the bankruptcy estate. A trustee is appointed, who typically displaces the company’s management and who may operate the debtor’s business for a limited period if doing so is in the best interests of the estate and consistent with its orderly liquidation. In the case of an individual debtor, the trustee will oversee and administer the case, and will liquidate the debtor’s non-exempt assets. Companies and individuals may also seek to liquidate under Chapter 11.

Voluntary reorganisations

What are the requirements for a debtor commencing a voluntary reorganisation and what are the effects?

Any eligible debtor who proceeds in good faith may commence a Chapter 11 case by filing a petition and paying a filing fee. A debtor need not be insolvent, either on a cash-flow or balance-sheet basis. The filing of a Chapter 11 petition immediately triggers the automatic stay and creates the Chapter 11 estate. A Chapter 11 debtor typically continues to operate its business as a ‘debtor-in-possession’. It enjoys the exclusive right to propose a Chapter 11 plan for the first 120 days of the case, which exclusive right may be extended for cause to no more than 18 months, after which other interested parties may file their own plans.

Successful reorganisations

How are creditors classified for purposes of a reorganisation plan and how is the plan approved? Can a reorganisation plan release non-debtor parties from liability and, if so, in what circumstances?

Confirmation of a plan requires, among other things, that the Chapter 11 plan:

  • be proposed in good faith and not by any means forbidden by law;
  • designate all claims and interests into classes (such that all claims or interests in a particular class must be substantially similar);
  • specify the treatment of each class of claims or interests and state whether such classes are impaired or unimpaired;
  • include, if at least one class of claims is impaired by the plan, at least one accepting class of impaired claims (determined without including any acceptances by insiders);
  • provide adequate means for the plan’s implementation;
  • be ‘feasible’ (ie, not likely to be followed by the need for liquidation or another financial reorganisation); and
  • with respect to each impaired class of claims or interests, provide that each holder of a claim or interest in such class either has voted to accept the plan or will receive or retain under the plan on account of such claim or interest, property of a value as of the effective date of the plan that is not less than the amount that such holder would receive or retain if the debtor were liquidated under Chapter 7 of the United States Code (the Bankruptcy Code).


Known as the ‘best interests of creditors test’, this last requirement ensures that creditors and interest holders who do not vote in favour of the plan receive at least as much under the plan as they would receive if the debtor were liquidated under Chapter 7. Unimpaired classes are classes whose claims are reinstated or paid in full as if the bankruptcy had not occurred. They are deemed to have accepted the plan and are not entitled to vote on the plan. Conversely, classes that receive no distribution under the plan, likewise, are not entitled to vote because they are deemed to have rejected the plan.

Holders of impaired claims or interests may vote to accept or reject a plan. A class of claims is deemed to accept a plan if that plan has been accepted by creditors that hold at least two-thirds in amount and more than half in number of the allowed claims of the class held by creditors that have voted. A class of interest holders accepts a Chapter 11 plan if holders of in excess of two-thirds of the number of shares actually vote to accept the plan. If an impaired class rejects a plan, the plan may be confirmed only through ‘cramdown’. Cramdown requires, in addition to the requirements above, that the plan does not ‘discriminate unfairly’; and it must be ‘fair and equitable’ with respect to each impaired, non-accepting class. To avoid unfair discrimination, a plan must classify similarly situated claims together and treat them similarly. The ‘fair and equitable’ standard strives to respect the existing priorities of claims and interests (the ‘absolute priority rule’) so that senior claims in dissenting classes must be satisfied in full before junior claims or interests can receive or retain any property under the plan.

While debtors may in appropriate circumstances release others, courts remain divided over whether a plan may include releases by creditors and other parties in interest in favour of non-debtors. These releases are permitted only in unusual circumstances, if at all. At a minimum, third-party releases must be necessary and fair. ‘Deemed releases,’ that is, releases granted automatically by a plan based on a creditor’s unimpairment or failure to elect not to grant a release, remain controversial and some district courts have held these releases exceed a bankruptcy court’s jurisdiction. A plan may, however, contain releases and exculpations in favour of the debtor’s officers, directors, advisers and other professionals, as well as statutory committees and their advisers, and in appropriate instances other key stakeholders who provided substantial consideration to the reorganisation (including lenders) and their advisers, for acts and omissions made in connection with or arising from the Chapter 11 case itself.

Involuntary liquidations

What are the requirements for creditors placing a debtor into involuntary liquidation and what are the effects? Once the proceeding is opened, are there material differences to proceedings opened voluntarily?

Creditors may file an involuntary Chapter 7 liquidation against any debtor that would be eligible to file a voluntary case that is not paying its debts, other than farmers, railways and not-for-profit corporations. In general, at least three creditors holding in aggregate unsecured claims of US$16,750 that are not contingent as to liability or in dispute as to liability or amount, must sign the involuntary petition. If contested, the court may not order relief unless the debtor is generally not paying its debts as they become due (unless these debts are the subject of a bona fide dispute as to liability or amount), or the debtor turned its assets over to a custodian for liquidation in the 120 days before the date of the filing of the petition. Balance sheet insolvency is not grounds for involuntary relief. The filing of an involuntary petition triggers the automatic stay. The debtor may continue to operate its business during the ‘gap’ period while an involuntary petition is contested, although the court may appoint an interim trustee for cause. If the court grants an involuntary petition, the case proceeds in the same manner as a voluntary Chapter 7 case and a trustee is appointed. The debtor may convert an involuntary Chapter 7 case to a voluntary Chapter 11 case to maintain control of the bankruptcy process.

Involuntary reorganisations

What are the requirements for creditors commencing an involuntary reorganisation and what are the effects? Once the proceeding is opened, are there any material differences to proceedings opened voluntarily?

Creditors must meet the same requirements applicable to an involuntary Chapter 7 case to obtain involuntary Chapter 11 relief. If the court grants the involuntary Chapter 11 petition, the case proceeds like any other Chapter 11 case.

Expedited reorganisations

Do procedures exist for expedited reorganisations (eg, ‘prepackaged’ reorganisations)?

The Bankruptcy Code specifically authorises expedited reorganisations and permits prepackaged plans that a debtor negotiates and in respect of which it solicits votes before filing for Chapter 11 relief. Courts have confirmed prepackaged Chapter 11 cases within one day after filing for bankruptcy, although such accelerated timing is the exception, not the norm. A debtor may also file a ‘pre-arranged’ Chapter 11 case in which it negotiates pre-Chapter 11 the terms of its reorganisation with major creditor constituencies but does not solicit votes in favour of a plan until after the Chapter 11 filing.

Unsuccessful reorganisations

How is a proposed reorganisation defeated and what is the effect of a reorganisation plan not being approved? What if the debtor fails to perform a plan?

A Chapter 11 plan must meet the required confirmation requirements. Failure to confirm a Chapter 11 plan provides grounds for dismissal or conversion of the case to a liquidation under Chapter 7. A court may also permit the filing of an alternative plan. Material default under a confirmed plan or inability to substantially consummate a confirmed plan constitute grounds for dismissal or conversion to liquidation under Chapter 7. The court may give a plan proponent the opportunity to cure a default under a confirmed plan. A debtor may also modify a plan after its confirmation and before its substantial consummation if the modified plan meets the requirements for confirmation.

Corporate procedures

Are there corporate procedures for the dissolution of a corporation? How do such processes contrast with bankruptcy proceedings?

A corporation may dissolve or liquidate under state law. Modern corporate statutes generally provide that directors of dissolved corporations may distribute assets to shareholders only after discharging or making reasonable provision for the payment of creditors. Unlike bankruptcy, state law dissolution provides little court supervision and lacks the benefit of an automatic stay. State law procedures are also not subject to oversight by the US trustee or official creditors’ committees and no collective enforcement action exists. Under state law, directors and officers may be personally liable for unlawful distributions or the failure to adequately provide for claims, including unknown and contingent claims. In contrast, the bankruptcy process provides a centralised and judicially supervised forum for winding up a company’s affairs. While more formal than state dissolution processes, bankruptcy provides greater transparency to stakeholders and ensures a greater degree of immunity for officers and directors acting on behalf of the company.

Conclusion of case

How are liquidation and reorganisation cases formally concluded?

In a Chapter 7 case, after all available assets have been sold and proceeds distributed to creditors, the trustee files a final report and account and certifies that the estate has been fully administered after which the court discharges the trustee and enters an order closing the case. A Chapter 11 debtor emerges from bankruptcy protection when its confirmed plan becomes effective, at which time it can resume operating without court oversight. Most Chapter 11 plans become effective upon their substantial consummation; that is, when:

  • all or substantially all of the property proposed by the plan to be transferred has been transferred;
  • the debtor or its successor has assumed management of all or substantially all of the property the plan addresses; and
  • distributions under the plan have commenced.


After the Chapter 11 estate is fully administered, the court enters a final decree closing the case.