While the European Union’s deadline for implementing new cookie rules has passed, substantial uncertainty remains about what organizations should do to make their online activities compliant. In this advisory we offer six practical tips for dealing with the uncertainty.
EU member states have significant discretion to determine how they will implement the new rules, and many governments have delegated the interpretation and application of these rules to their national or regional data protection authorities. Consequently, even where legislation has been adopted, detailed implementation guidance will be needed. Given the broad scope of possible obligations under the Directive and the potential for a variety of interpretations of its rules, organizations operating websites or providing services over the Internet will need to assess their potential compliance obligations and monitor how key jurisdictions are interpreting the requirements.
A single interpretation of the new cookie consent requirement has not emerged. The coordinating group for European data protection regulators, the Article 29 Working Party, issued an opinion in June 2010 that advocates a strict interpretation of an opt-in requirement. Under the most rigorous application of an opt-in cookie system, a website visitor would be required to affirmatively accept the cookie through a pop-up screen or similar splash page before entering a website. This type of application would have significant implications for European website operators.
There is good reason to believe that few, if any authorities will implement the opt-in rule in the manner advocated by the Working Group. First, the new rules provide some leeway on the type of consent required, stating that consent is not required when a cookie is “strictly necessary” for a service that has been requested by a customer, and declining to define the required standard as “prior consent.” Second, the Directive permits the user to express consent through browser settings, opening the possibility that consent requirements could be satisfied by a user’s declared preference to accept cookies through browser settings.
More importantly, because each EU member state will have some flexibility in interpreting and implementing the new rules, each may choose to impose requirements that are less drastic than the Working Group recommendation. As an example, the U.K., recognizing the importance of a streamlined user experience on websites, has rejected a strict opt-in system based on “prior consent” and has announced a more flexible interpretation focused on “informed consent.”
According to guidance published by the U.K. Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO), “informed consent” can, among other ways, take the form of browser settings—even a default setting to accept cookies that has not been changed by the user (assuming adequate and prominent disclosures have been provided). The ICO’s approach gives the U.K. flexibility to adjust its interpretation of the Directive’s requirements on an ongoing basis. This will provide the U.K. and states that adopt similar policies the ability to adjust enforcement as browser technology advances and behavioral marketing methods evolve.
Because each member state may implement the rules differently, and because a significant number may adopt a flexible, adapting enforcement regime like that outlined by the U.K., website operators in Europe should prepare to face requirements along a spectrum of possible interpretations of the Directive’s opt-in provision. These may range from a gradual shift toward browser-based opt-in systems at one end and, at the other extreme, immediate calls for affirmative statements of consent by users for each individual website.
In the short term, many organizations will need to strike a balance and look at practical ways to minimize potential problems under the new rules. With that in mind, we offer the following tips:
1. Decide what rules apply. The new cookie rules may not apply to your organization. Companies based in Europe and websites hosted on servers located within the European Economic Area will need to comply with the new rules. Websites hosted outside the EEA are probably, as a strict matter of law, also subject to the new rules if they are used by European residents. However, organizations with no meaningful activities or presence in Europe are unlikely to be the subject of enforcement action given the difficulty that regulatory authorities have in pursuing website operators with no local assets. Similarly, online services that are targeted at only a few European countries can focus on complying with only those countries’ cookie rules. (Remember the cookie rules are not based on EU data protection law—consent is required regardless of whether personal data is collected from a user.)
6. Monitor developments. The EU’s adoption of the Directive is only the beginning of a process in Europe. Further steps need to be taken in many countries to complete implementation of the new rules, and regulators will continue to interpret how the rules should be applied in practice. Changes in browsers and smartphone platforms will also influence the evolution of the rules. Regulators are looking to the major browser makers to provide new ways for users to provide informed consent when online. In particular, organizations will need to consider the “Do Not Track” capabilities that are being added to browsers.
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