In August 2009 RF Micro Devices, Inc. (RFMD) agreed to settle charges of unauthorized exports of controlled spread-spectrum modems to China. Spread-spectrum modems create wide bandwidth communications links resistant to interference, jamming and detection, and are controlled for national security reasons (and classified under ECCN 5A001). RFMD voluntarily disclosed the unlicensed exports to BIS and was ultimately alleged to have participated in 14 unlicensed exports and 13 instances of making false or misleading statements in connection with the submission of related shipper’s export declarations. The company has agreed to pay a US$190,000 civil penalty to settle the allegations. In addition, an RFMD manager responsible for export control compliance has agreed to settle allegations she made false and misleading statements to BIS agents during their investigation of the company. She allegedly told a BIS investigator that an outside consultant advised the company that its products were not export-controlled to any region where they were being marketed and sold; in fact, she repeatedly had been advised that the products may have required export licenses. For her part, the RFMD manager agreed to pay a civil penalty of US$15,000.