On May 12, 2011, Senators Franken and Blumenthal reintroduced the Arbitration Fairness Act (AFA) which, if passed, would amend the FAA to render unenforceable any mandatory arbitration clause for employment, consumer, franchise, or civil rights disputes, as well as any dispute arising under any statute intended “to regulate contracts or transactions between parties of unequal bargaining power.” The AFA failed to pass twice before and the third time is not likely to be the charm, given the current makeup of Congress. But the AFA may not be the only avenue for limiting Concepcion. The Dodd-Frank Act requires the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) to study and provide a report to Congress concerning the use of mandatory arbitration agreements in connection with consumer financial products and allows the CFPB to issue rules that may “prohibit or impose conditions” on the use of arbitration agreements if the study finds that it would be in the public interest and would protect consumers. While Concepcion holds that arbitration clauses are binding once they are part of a contract, the CFPB could attempt to prohibit their inclusion in a contract in the first place.