Every so often a case comes along where you read the opinion and say to yourself, “Did they really think this would work?” Meadowsweet Dairy, LLC v. Hooker, Commissioner of Agriculture and Markets, No. 1868, 2010 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 1841 (Mar. 11, 2010) is one of those cases.  

Steven and Barbara Smith operated a New York dairy and produced and sold unpasteurized milk from 1995 to 2007. During that time they were regulated and inspected by the New York Department of Agriculture and Markets (the Department), and held the permits required by the Department.  

In March 2007 the Smiths surrendered their permits and formed Meadowsweet Dairy, LLC. Meadowsweet began operating the dairy and producing unpasteurized milk, cheese and yogurt. But instead of selling milk to the general public, Meadowsweet dealt only with individuals who became members of the LLC. Meadowsweet complied with none of the Department’s permit, inspection and other regulatory requirements.  

Meadowsweet’s members were required to make an initial capital contribution of $50, and to make capital contributions at the start of each quarter based on the member’s estimated consumption of milk and dairy products during the quarter. Members were then entitled to receive what were called “dividends,” i.e., distributions from the LLC, in proportion to their capital contributions. The list price of milk received by the member was then credited against the member’s capital account. Milk and other dairy products produced by Meadowsweet were only available to Meadowsweet’s members.  

In October 2007 the Department seized 260 pounds of unpasteurized milk from Meadowsweet for noncompliance with its regulations. Meadowsweet then commenced suit, seeking a declaration that the Department lacked jurisdiction.  

Meadowsweet’s principal argument was that it was not selling products – that no sale occurred when its members received milk products as distributions. The court, however, looked at Meadowsweet’s system of prepaid capital accounts and offsetting credits equal to the list price of the member’s milk dividend and concluded that “[r]ather than truly constituting dividends in return for their investment in the LLC, this arrangement appears to be a system of prepayment for the sale of dairy products.” Meadowsweet, 2010 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 1841, at **10.  

The court did not analyze why the arrangement “appears to be a system of prepayment,” but it’s not hard to see what must have been the court’s reasoning. First, the adoption of the new business model (capital contributions and milk distributions that offset against the member’s capital) coincided with surrendering the Department’s permits. But more tellingly, the so-called capital contributions were not used as capital in any normal sense of the word.  

The “capital” of a business usually means its assets, such as cash, goods, and machinery, that are used to generate income. Capital is usually held for the long term. An LLC’s operating agreement can specify how distributions are made, see New York Limited Liability Company Law Section 504, and LLCs almost always severely limit the extent to which distributions can be made to members. In contrast, Meadowsweet’s members could unilaterally decide how much milk to consume and thereby control their receipt of “dividends.” Each member’s capital fluctuated during the quarter based on its milk consumption.  

The court did not recognize any business purpose for Meadowsweet’s structure other than avoiding regulation, and found that Meadowsweet was in effect selling milk to its members. Meadowsweet labeled its members’ payments as capital and labeled the milk delivered to its members as dividends, but the court ignored the terminology and looked to the substance rather than the form of the transaction. Presumably the court was also influenced by the public health character of the Department’s regulations.  

The court also found other reasons why Meadowsweet was subject to the jurisdiction of the Department. The regulations required that producers of milk products such as the cheese and yogurt produced by Meadowsweet must obtain a milk plant permit. The court also held that even if the milk was not sold, a permit is nonetheless required for unpasteurized milk given or otherwise made available to consumers.  

In considering the results of this unsuccessful attempt to avoid the Department’s regulations, one wonders whether legal counsel were involved and what role they played. Did a lawyer for the Smiths originate the idea of using an LLC and recharacterizing milk sales as capital contributions and dividends? Or did the Smiths originate the idea and use a lawyer to form Meadowsweet and document the arrangements with milk consumers? Or was the entire plan carried out without the benefit of legal advice? If lawyers were involved they appear to have taken what a more conservative lawyer would call an overly aggressive approach, to put it charitably. Sometimes the best advice a lawyer can give is to say “Let’s stop and think this one over,” and that surely would have been good advice here.