On January 8, 2010, West Virginia's Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) finalized its industry guidance for oil and gas drilling in the Marcellus Shale. The guidance focuses on large water volume fracture treatments and addresses the use and disposal of frac fluids. As discussed in the guidance, horizontal drilling, coupled with large volume hydraulic fracture treatments, is becoming a common exploration technique. Large amounts of water mixed with sand and other additives are pumped into the shale formation under high pressure to fracture the rock around the well to create a permeability conduit to the well bore. Water used in the hydraulic fracturing process, often referred to as “frac fluid,” must be processed in one of three ways. It can be injected in permitted disposal wells, treated to remove generated pollutants then disposed of properly, or reused.

The WVDEP also added a "Well Work Permit Application Addendum" as part of its natural gas drilling permit application requirements.