Mass torts have long been a problem for the American judicial system. Today, it's Vioxx, the BP oil spill, and Chinese drywall. Fifteen years ago, it was asbestos, Agent Orange, and silicone gel breast implants. Back in the 1980s and 1990s, when mass torts first threatened to overwhelm crowded dockets in various jurisdictions, the courts carefully considered whether to use class actions as a means of resolving thousands of similar tort claims.
And, at that time, Columbia University law professor (and recent Daily Show guest) John Coffee wrote an in-depth examination of the various problems and conflicts of interest that arose when courts tried to use Rule 23 to solve the mass tort problem: Class Wars: The Dilemma of the Mass Tort Class Action.
Professor Coffee began by providing an excellent working definition of a mass tort:
Mass tort litigation is characterized by several unique features: (1) a predictable evolutionary cycle during which the value and volume of individual claims starts low and then spirals upward; (2) high case interdependency so that litigated outcomes in any mass tort area quickly impact on the settlement value of other pending cases in that same field; (3) a highly concentrated plaintiffs' bar, in which individual practitioners control exceptionally large inventories of cases, sometimes totaling in the tens of thousands; and (4) a capacity to place logistical pressure on individual courts that is simply unequalled by any other form of civil litigation.
Over time, courts have progressively held that mass torts are not well-suited for class-action treatment, particularly not in the form of "settlement classes" (that is, class actions filed specifically to enforce a pre-existing settlement agreement between plaintiffs and defendants). And Professor Coffee spends much of the article discussing the difficulties that arise from doing so. The portions of his discussion that remain most relevant have to do with the conflicts of interest that arise from aggregated settlements.
On an ethical level, probably the most disquieting phenomenon about recent mass tort settlements has been the acceptance of a single attorney acting as the representative of multiple subclasses of plaintiffs. Not only have the interests of these subclasses clearly conflicted, but the class counsel has explicitly traded off the interests of subclasses against each other, obtaining substantial compensation for one subclass in return for a waiver of cash compensation by anoth- er. In such multiparty negotiations between the defendants and different subclasses of plaintiffs, even the well-meaning plaintiffs' attorney shifts inevitably from the role of an advocate and adviser for clients to the role of a philosopher king, dispensing largess among his client subjects.
While the specific cases may have changed, the fundamental dilemma remains the same, however, whether it is a class action or just a series of consolidated tort cases. Any resolution of mass torts has to accommodate (1) the plaintiffs' desire for redress of some kind, (2) the defendant's desire for global peace, and (3) the plaintiffs' attorneys' desire for fees.
And Professor Coffee discusses a number of issues that still resonate. While the explicit development of "settlement classes" has waned, defendants will still take advantage of filed class actions to try to achieve releases of larger issues through a classwide settlement. And Coffee's descriptions of inventory settlements and settling future claims are both still relevant today.
So what can modern defendants take from this article? The most useful portions have to do with objection-proofing possible settlements:
- Negotiate down attorneys' fees. It makes sense to negotiate on fees more closely than defendants have done in the past. While it doesn't matter as much to the defendant who gets paid (from a fiscal, not emotional, standpoint), courts care. And courts are beginning to eye "clear-sailing" and quick-pay provisions with greater suspicion.
- Try to give the class some cash benefit. Courts have long been suspicious of non-monetary benefits. And they're expressing their concerns more openly.
- Make sure subgroups are separately represented. In a discussion that seems especially prescient today, Professor Coffee notes that "On an ethical level, probably the most disquieting phenomenon about recent mass tort settlements has been the acceptance of a single attorney acting as the representative of multiple subclasses of plaintiffs." A defendant interested in a global settlement of certain complaints could do worse than to insist that subclasses receive separate counsel. (Among other advantages, counsel who are both zealous and ethical can help the defendant reduce payments for true nuisance claims.)
Be advised, the advice to be gleaned from Professor Coffee's article, particularly in light of current settlement case law, doesn't make for easy or cheap class settlements. But as I've said for some time now, for defendants, settling on the cheap can get really expensive.