The 55th Update to the CPRs came into force on 6 April 2011. In addition to those changes made to Part 78 to implement the EU Mediation Directive (see above), the following are the most pertinent updates in respect of commercial disputes:

  • Part 6: the address of a European lawyer in an EEA state, or, for a litigant in person, the litigant's normal residence or place of business in the UK or failing that any EEA State as an address for service.
  • The Costs Practice Direction: the treatment of VAT in relation to payments to a third party that are shown as disbursements by the legal representatives in bills of costs. Guidance as to the circumstances in which disbursements may or may not be classified as disbursements for VAT purposes is given in the VAT guide (Notice 700, paragraph 25.1).