Intellectual property rights

IP protection for software

Which intellectual property rights are available to protect software, and how do you obtain those rights?

Computer programs (and preparatory design materials for computer programs) are protected by copyright as literary works. Copyright arises automatically as soon as the computer program is recorded. No registration is required.

Databases underlying software programs may also be protected by copyright and, in certain circumstances, by database right. Database right is a standalone right that protects databases that have involved a substantial investment in obtaining, verifying or presenting their contents (see section 14(1) of the Copyright and Rights in Databases Regulations 1997). Both database copyright and database rights arise automatically without any need for registration.

If the software code has been kept confidential, it may also be protected as confidential information. No registration is required.

Programs for computers, and schemes, rules or methods of doing business ‘as such’, are expressly excluded from patentability under the Patents Act 1977 (PA 1977). These exclusions ultimately flow from the European Patent Convention. Notwithstanding these exclusions, it is possible to obtain patents for computer programs and business methods if it can be shown that the underlying invention makes a ‘technical contribution’ over and above that provided by the program or business method itself, such as an improvement in the working of the computer. Accordingly, a well-drafted patent may be able to bring a computer-based, software or business method invention within this requirement, but this may be difficult to do and will not always be possible. Registration formalities must be followed to obtain protection.

IP developed by employees and contractors

Who owns new intellectual property developed by an employee during the course of employment? Do the same rules apply to new intellectual property developed by contractors or consultants?

Copyright and database rights created by an employee in the course of their employment are automatically owned by the employer unless otherwise agreed. Inventions made by an employee in the course of their normal duties (or, in the case of employees who owe a special obligation to further the interests of their employer’s business, in the course of any duties) are automatically owned by the employer (see section 11(2) of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988).

However, copyright and inventions created by contractors or consultants in the course of their duties are owned by the contractor or consultant unless otherwise agreed in writing. Database rights are owned by the person who takes the initiative and assumes the risk of investing in obtaining, verifying and presenting the data in question. Depending on the circumstances, this is likely to be the business that has retained the contractor or consultant.

Joint ownership

Are there any restrictions on a joint owner of intellectual property’s right to use, license, charge or assign its right in intellectual property?

Restrictions on a joint owner’s ability to use, license, charge or assign its right in intellectual property will depend on the intellectual property right in question. For example, the restrictions on a joint owner of a patent are different from those on a joint owner of copyright.

A joint copyright owner cannot copy, license or grant security over jointly owned copyright without the consent of the other joint owners (see sections 16(2) and 173(2) of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988). Each joint owner may assign their own interest, but consent is required for an assignment of the whole right. A joint copyright owner is also able to grant security over their interest.

In the case of UK patents and patent applications, a joint owner is entitled to work the invention concerned for his or her own benefit and does not need the consent of the other joint owners to do so (section 36(2) PA 1977). However, the consent of the other joint owners is required to grant a licence under the patent or patent application and to assign or mortgage a share in the patent or patent application (section 36(3) PA 1977).

The situation is similar for UK-registered trademarks. Each joint owner is entitled to use the registered trademark for their own benefit without the consent of the other joint owners (section 23(3) Trade Marks Act 1994 (TMA 1994)), but the consent of the other joint owners is required to grant a licence of the trademark and to assign or charge a share in the trademark (section 23(4) TMA 1994).

Given the variations in the rights and restrictions of joint owners, and given that the rights of joint owners also differ on a country-by-country basis, it is highly advisable in any situation where parties work together on a project to agree at the outset how the results are to be owned by the parties and their individual rights to exploit the results. In general, joint ownership of intellectual property should be avoided if possible because of the complexities described above.

Trade secrets

How are trade secrets protected? Are trade secrets kept confidential during court proceedings?

Protection of trade secrets in the UK is regulated by The Trade Secrets (Enforcement, etc) Regulations 2018 (the Trade Secrets Regulations), which implement the Trade Secrets Directive in the UK and came into force on 9 June 2018. Trade secrets are also protected by the law on breach of confidence, which provides broadly the same level of protection as is required under the Trade Secrets Directive. The Trade Secrets Regulations define what qualifies as a protectable trade secret, providing protection for information that:

  • is secret, in the sense that it is not generally known among, or readily accessible to, persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question;
  • has commercial value because it is secret; and
  • has been subject to reasonable steps (under the circumstances) by the holder of the information to keep it secret.


The Trade Secrets Regulations also implement aspects of the Trade Secrets Directive that differ from, or add to, the existing law applying to the protection of confidential information. This includes specifying the limitation period for bringing a trade secrets claim and the rules regarding awarding damages and interim and corrective measures.

Confidential information (which may include non-public information that is not captured by the definition of ‘trade secret’) can be protected against misuse, provided the information in question has the necessary quality of confidence and is subject to an express or implied duty of confidence. In the case of both trade secrets and the confidential information, no registration is necessary (or possible). Trade secrets and confidential information can be kept confidential during civil proceedings with the permission of the court.


What intellectual property rights are available to protect branding and how do you obtain those rights? How can fintech businesses ensure they do not infringe existing brands?

Brands can be protected as registered trademarks either in the UK alone (as a UK trademark) or across the EU (as an EU trademark). A brand can also be protected under the common law tort of passing-off if it has acquired sufficient goodwill.

Certain branding, such as logos and stylised marks, can also be protected by design rights and may also be protected by copyright as artistic works.

The UK and EU trademark databases can all be searched to identify registered or applied for trademark rights with effect in the UK. It is highly advisable for fintech businesses to conduct trademark searches to check whether earlier registrations exist that are identical or similar to their proposed brand names. It may also be advisable to conduct searches of the internet for any unregistered trademark rights that may prevent use of the proposed mark.

Remedies for infringement of IP

What remedies are available to individuals or companies whose intellectual property rights have been infringed?

Remedies include:

  • preliminary and final injunctions;
  • damages or an account of profits;
  • delivery up or destruction of infringing products;
  • publication orders; and
  • costs.

Law stated date

Correct on:

Give the date on which the above content is accurate.

5 June 2020.