An extract from The Real Estate Law Review, 10th Edition
Real estate ownershipi Planning
Planning and land use issues are largely controlled by states and municipalities, through the mechanism of zoning laws adopted by local jurisdictions. In rural and suburban areas, zoning laws focus on master plans for large-scale developments and related infrastructure, with a focus on controlling density, preserving open space and ensuring that there is adequate water, sewer capacity and other necessary utilities for developments. Preservation of wetlands and natural habitats of endangered plant and animal species are controlled by federal laws, in addition to local zoning laws. In urban areas, zoning laws will prescribe, for each specified zoning district, the uses to which real estate can be put (industrial, commercial, residential or institutional), the density of development (number of square feet of building space per unit of land area), the height, the distance from the property boundaries to the building or buildings, overall architectural configuration of individual buildings, the sizes and configurations of yards and open space and street frontages. Zoning laws often contain incentives or requirements for developers to provide public benefits, such as affordable housing, parks and other public amenities in connection with a new development. Many localities also require preservation of designated landmark buildings. Legal challenges to land use regulations continue to be brought in state and federal courts, which set the limits of how far government can go in regulating the uses to which land can be put without constituting an unconstitutional 'taking' of the private property of the landowner.ii Environment
Liability of a landowner for contamination of land and water by hazardous substances is governed by both federal and state laws, and enforced concurrently by federal and state governments. The primary federal laws governing hazardous substances liability are the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Both CERCLA and RCRA make the owners and the operators of land financially and legally responsible for hazardous substance contamination of land that they own or operate, as well as any contamination of neighbouring land or water caused by activities on the land they own or operate. Nearly every state has adopted environmental statutes requiring owners and operators to prepare specific plans for approval by the state environmental agencies for remediation of soil and water contamination caused by hazardous substances. Some states require an approved remediation plan to be in place before an owner can transfer title to any property that was used for industrial use. As part of the due diligence investigation for a property acquisition, a buyer will conduct a Phase I environmental study to determine the past uses of the land, and whether any federal or state environmental violations have been noted. If the Phase I study indicates possible environmental liability, a Phase II study, in which soil and groundwater samples are studied, is customarily undertaken prior to property acquisition. A new buyer of property will become liable for clean-up obligations, even if they have occurred in the past, although the new owner will have the right to claim against the prior owner or operator that caused the contamination. Several insurance products are currently available to property owners to protect against unknown liabilities for prior pollution, and are becoming the norm in transactions for sophisticated buyers.iii Tax
Many state and local jurisdictions, including towns or counties, impose a transfer tax on transfers of real estate. The amount of tax generally ranges from a few tenths of a percentage point to more than 3 per cent of the consideration paid for the transfer. Nearly all jurisdictions that impose a transfer tax will tax transfers of fee title. Others will also tax long-term ground leases, transfers of majority interests in entities that own real estate and transfers of other title interests, including easements, lease assignments, and air rights. Some jurisdictions will also tax mortgages based on a percentage of the principal amount. These taxes are paid at the time of transfer and recording of the transfer instrument, and are usually (but not always) imposed on the transferor.iv Finance and security
The most common forms of security for a real estate loan are a mortgage (which creates a security interest for the lender in the real estate) and a mezzanine pledge (which creates a security interest for a lender in the ownership interests in the entity that owns the real estate). A first-priority mortgage is given to the most senior lender, typically with a loan that does not exceed 50 to 75 per cent of the value of the property. If larger amounts are borrowed, the additional loan will be junior in priority to the mortgage loan, and will be secured by a pledge of the ownership interests in the entity that owns the real estate, and not the real estate itself. Thus, when a first mortgage lender forecloses on a mortgage collateral to enforce its loan, it will ultimately hold a sale of title to the property itself to receive repayment on its loan, and will wipe out all junior liens, including a mezzanine pledge, in the event that the sale proceeds are not sufficient to pay off claims. When the mezzanine lender forecloses on its security interest in the ownership entity, it will take title to the ownership interests of the property subject to the mortgage, and the mortgage will remain intact. Both mortgages and security pledges are subject to and enforced under state laws. While details of the enforcement process vary from state to state, lien priority issues are generally similar. In CMBS, where mortgage loans are pooled into a single trust and securities of differing priorities created in the trust, the enforcement of the underlying mortgages follows the same state law process as for single loans.