On 10 February Italy lodged its instrument of ratification of the Unified Patent Court Agreement (UPCA) with the EU Council. Italy is the twelfth state to ratify the UPCA (for details of other ratifications see the UPCA section here). For the UPCA to come into force at least 13 contracting states must ratify including 3 specific ones: France, Germany and the UK. France has already ratified. The UK has announced that it will ratify (see here) and Germany is said to be holding on until August so that the 4 month lead-in period which applies once there is sufficient ratification can commence in time to allow a 1 December 2017 start date for the (under Article 89 UPCA, the agreement enters into force on the first day of the fourth month after the deposit of the thirteenth instrument of ratification).