To the plaudits of the major television broadcast networks, a New York district court judge on Tuesday issued a preliminary injunction against the streaming of live broadcast television signals by online video distributor Ivi, Inc. The judge concluded that plaintiffs NBC Universal, Fox Television, CBS and Disney “have demonstrated a likelihood of success on the merits, irreparable harm should the injunction not be granted, a balance of hardships weighing in their favor, and the public interest will not be disserved.” Billing itself as a low-cost alternative to cable firms and other multichannel video program distributors, Ivi argues that, because it qualifies as a cable provider under Section 111 of the Copyright Act, it may take advantage of the copyright compulsory license to retransmit broadcast television network signals via the Internet. However, because Ivi provides its service over the Internet, the company maintains that it is not a cable operator for the purposes of the 1934 Communications Act and is therefore not obligated to comply with FCC rules that pertain to retransmission consent. Granting the injunctive relief sought by the petitioners, U.S. District Court Judge Naomi Rice Buchwald declared that no multichannel video distributor, regardless of the technology used, “has been allowed to take advantage of Section 111 to retransmit copyrighted programming to a national audience while not complying with the rules and regulations of the FCC.” Buchwald also cited the findings of the U.S. Copyright Office that “the compulsory license cannot be utilized by a service which retransmits broadcast signals nationwide.” Lamenting that Buchwald’s decision “showed clearly the ambiguities in current law and regulation which online video providers like Ivi face.” A representative of Public Knowledge, which filed a “friend of the court” brief in support of Ivi, advised: “if competition to traditional cable service is to develop in the online distribution sector, then the [FCC] and Copyright Office are going to have to move quickly to update their rules to conform to the realities of new technology and consumer choice.”