Sony BMG is a joint venture combining Sony Corporation of America (Sony) and Bertelsmann AG’s recorded music business. On 15 September 2008, the Commission approved a deal under which Sony will acquire full ownership and control of the joint venture. In coming to its decision, the Commission considered four key areas. First, it considered whether the deal would lead to horizontal overlaps in the music recording markets, but concluded that, since Sony has no other music recording interests in the EU, this would not be the case. Secondly, it considered whether the combination of music recording activity of Sony BMG with the music publishing activity of Sony/ATV could have a detrimental affect upon online music retailers. However, it found that retailers had access to a wide portfolio of other online music sources. Thirdly, the Commission analysed the vertical integration between the activities of Sony in consumer electronics, video games and cinema, and Sony’s music publishing and music recording activities. It found that Sony would still have an incentive to provide music to third party producers of consumer electronics. Finally, the Commission considered the effect of the deal on the music recording market as a whole and concluded, based on its earlier findings in 2004 and 2007, that the transaction was unlikely to result in collective dominance by the major music companies.