In 2003, the German Federal Cartel Office (“FCO ”) fined five cement manufacturers a total of €650 million for operating a price-fixing cartel (a smaller fine of €12 million was levied against another cartel member, which informed the FCO of the cartel’s existence). In June 2009, the Düsseldorf Court of Appeals significantly reduced the fines to a total of €328.5 million. The Court took into account the fact that some of the cartel members had cooperated with the investigation. It also considered that the FCO had overestimated the profits made by the cartel members. German cement company HeidelbergCement, which received the largest fine (€169.9 million following the Court’s ruling), appealed to the German Supreme Court. Cement manufacturers also face a damages claim brought by Cartel Damage Claims, a company specialised in antitrust litigation, on behalf of 36 alleged victims of the cartel.