Intellectual property rights

IP protection for software

Which intellectual property rights are available to protect software, and how do you obtain those rights?

Software constitutes literary work, which enjoys automatic copyright protection under the Copyright Act, Chapter 415 of the Laws of Malta. A copyright is a non-registrable right that arises as soon as a work considered eligible for copyright protection (which under Maltese law, includes artistic works, audiovisual works, databases, literary works and musical works) is created. No formal registration of copyright (voluntary or otherwise) in Malta is required. Further, in accordance with the Patents and Designs Act, Chapter 417 of the Laws of Malta (PDA), schemes, rules and methods for doing business and computer programs are not considered to constitute inventions that are capable of patent protection.

IP developed by employees and contractors

Who owns new intellectual property developed by an employee during the course of employment? Do the same rules apply to new intellectual property developed by contractors or consultants?

In terms of works that are eligible for copyright protection, the Copyright Act dictates that such protection shall vest initially in the author or joint authors of the particular work. Particularly in the case of computer programs and databases, however, where a work is made in the course of the author’s employment, the economic rights arising therefrom will be deemed to be transferred to the author’s employer – subject to an agreement between the parties to the contrary. Other works eligible for copyright (namely, barring computer programs and databases) shall always vest in the author or joint authors of the particular work, provided that an agreement to the contrary has not been entered into.

With reference to patentable inventions, the PDA holds that any invention occurring under a contract of employment belongs to the employer; however, the creator of that work (namely, in this context, the employee) would have a right to equitable remuneration for their invention. In the absence of an agreement between the parties as to the remuneration due, this must be ascertained by the Maltese courts.

In view of the various nuances highlighted above, it is always advisable to incorporate a clause regulating the ownership, or otherwise, of intellectual property into a company’s standard contract of employment and service agreements with its contractors or consultants. However, when developing or making use of intellectual property in the course of employment or engagement, there is an argument to be made that the employee or the contractor or consultant engaged to render a particular service must be considered a fiduciary in accordance with article 1124 et seq of the Civil Code Chapter 16 of the Laws of Malta and must therefore abide by the various obligations specified therein.

Joint ownership

Are there any restrictions on a joint owner of intellectual property’s right to use, license, charge or assign its right in intellectual property?

The Trademarks Act, Chapter 597 of the Laws of Malta, states that where a registered trademark is subject to co-ownership, each joint owner is entitled, subject to an agreement stating the contrary, to an equal undivided share in the registered trademark. Each co-owner is also entitled, personally or otherwise, to perform for their own benefit, without the other co-owner’s consent, any act that would otherwise amount to an infringement of the registered trademark. A co-owner may not grant a licence over the registered trademark or assign or cede control of their share in the trademark without the other co-owner’s consent.

The aforementioned is also applicable in the case of co-ownership of a registered design under the PDA. Conversely, in the case of joint proprietors of a patent, the law specifies that either party may separately assign or transfer by succession their share of the patent with or without the other patent owner’s agreement. However, to surrender the patent or conclude a licensing agreement with third parties, the co-owners must act jointly.

In terms of copyright, a joint author can assign or license copyright unilaterally, provided that where any other joint author is not satisfied with the manner in which this assignment or licence has been granted, they can resort to the Copyright Board within three months from the day on which the terms of the assignment or licence have been communicated to them in writing.

Trade secrets

How are trade secrets protected? Are trade secrets kept confidential during court proceedings?

The Trade Secrets Act, Chapter 589 of the Laws of Malta (TSA) provides for measures to be taken against the unlawful acquisition, use and disclosure of trade secrets. The TSA allows the competent court to issue precautionary acts against the alleged infringer for the cessation or prohibition of the use or disclosure of the trade secret on a provisional basis. The court may also issue precautionary acts to prohibit the production, offering, placing on the market or use of infringing goods or the seizure of these infringing goods to prevent their entry into or circulation on the market. Once the court has determined that there has been unlawful acquisition, use or disclosure of a trade secret, it can order the cessation of the unlawful behaviour, apply injunctive and corrective measures or impose damages that are appropriate to the actual prejudice suffered as a result of the unlawful acquisition, use or disclosure of the trade secret. The TSA also states that should an application be submitted by an interested party, it shall be unlawful for any of the parties participating within the legal proceedings to disclose the nature or any details relating to the trade secret in question. This obligation shall remain in force even after legal proceedings have ended.


What intellectual property rights are available to protect branding and how do you obtain those rights? How can fintech businesses ensure they do not infringe existing brands?

Trademarks create a distinctive brand and can be obtained by lodging an application with the Malta Intellectual Property Rights Directorate outlining the trademark name or image (or combination thereof), as well as the goods and services that this trademark will protect. It is also possible to apply for an EU trademark, which will grant pan-EU protection over the trademark. On an international level, it is also possible to lodge an application with the World Intellectual Property Organisation, designating the countries in which trademark protection is sought.

Remedies for infringement of IP

What remedies are available to individuals or companies whose intellectual property rights have been infringed?

The remedies available are enshrined in the acts that regulate specific IP rights. The Trademarks Act provides that a person found guilty of trademark infringement under this act may be liable for:

  • imprisonment for up to three years;
  • a fine of up to €23,293; or
  • both.


This liability attaches to any person who, with a view to gain for themselves or another, or with intent to cause loss to another, uses or applies without the consent of the trademark owner an infringing sign or else has in their possession or control or offers for sale, hire or distribution goods that bear infringing marks. The Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights (Regulation) Act, Chapter 488 of the Laws of Malta, provides for measures that may be requested by intellectual property rights holders to enforce their intellectual property rights or to preserve evidence and request information from alleged infringers.