Internet network management—and the blockage or slowing of web traffic emanating from peer-to-peer (P2P) web sites—is proving to be a hot topic of debate in Canada, where Google urged Canada’s Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) to bar Bell Canada’s (BC’s) practice of “throttling” transmissions to P2P sites. Google is one of several companies that filed comments in response to an ongoing CRTC investigation of BC network management practices stemming from a petition filed in April by the Canadian Association of Internet Providers (CAIP). The CRTC proceeding also mirrors a similar probe in the U.S., where the FCC continues to assess web network management practices used by Comcast. Although the CRTC granted BC temporary authority in May to continue its practice of using deep packet inspection technology to slow some traffic from independent ISPs, the CRTC told BC that it must justify its policy by proving that P2P transmissions consume too much bandwidth and delay web traffic for most BC network users. The CAIP also warned that BC’s throttling practices “will make it difficult or impossible for members to properly manage the services they provide.” Asserting that BC’s policy violates provisions of Canadian telecom law that prohibit unjust discrimination, Google argued that throttling is unfair if it “singles out particular lawful applications or content.” Describing throttling as “inconsistent with a content-and-application-neutral Internet,” Google further predicted that throttling would have a “chilling effect, as innovators will not be able to develop new tools secure in the knowledge that users on every network will be able to access and run them.” However, other Canadian network operators, including TELUS Communications and Rogers Communications, came to BC’s defense as they described throttling as a valid means of ensuring the availability of critical network capacity to all customers during times of peak congestion. As BC stressed that it is “slowing down but not blocking [P2P] traffic during peak periods,” Rogers told the CRTC that, “left unmanaged, [P2P] applications can swamp a network’s upstream capacity and render customers incapable of sending e-mails, surfing websites, or using Internet voice services.”