On September 25, a four-year old boy from New Jersey died of Enterovirus D-68, reports myfoxphilly.com. Increasingly, there are reports about potential Ebola cases in the U.S.

Naturally, the spread of infectious disease raises concern for everyone, particularly for healthcare workers who want to do their jobs, and also protect their families. There are already indications that these concerns may have led to impermissible “snooping” by healthcare employees. Covered entities therefore need to take this increased risk seriously and remind members of their workforces that they may not access patient records for an impermissible purpose. Healthcare workers also should be reminded that impermissible snooping also can lead to termination, fines, and in some cases criminal prosecution.

For some “covered entities” that may not yet maintain as robust a program for creating HIPAA privacy and security awareness, this would be a good opportunity to communicate some of the basic safeguards required under HIPAA, including when and under what circumstances they can share patient information with family, friends, public health agencies, and the media. All covered entities should also remember to documents these efforts, as it is required under HIPAA and will help them to substantiate their compliance efforts.

Healthcare providers also must remember that HIPAA is not the only game in town. They have to also consider more stringent state laws that may apply in these situations. Additionally, for healthcare providers in different settings, such as universities in an educational setting, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) may have additional protections for treatment records pertaining to students.

No one knows where the next victim of Enterovirus D-68 or Ebola will show up for care. First and foremost, that provider needs to be prepared to treat that person. But the provider also needs to be sure privacy and security safeguards are in place to avoid a breach of the patient’s privacy and a compliance exposure.