In many instances a party who has suffered some form of loss at the hands of another does not have access to the documents, recordings or data which would enable that aggrieved party to enforce its rights against the perpetrator of the harm.
In the past the aggrieved party would institute action and would subsequently seek access to these documents, recordings or data in the course of the discovery procedures provided for in the court rules. This may mean that the true grounds of the action for recovery are only revealed at a fairly late stage once the discovered documents, recordings or data have been considered. Amendments to the pleadings (resulting in additional costs) may be necessary. At worst the discovery process may make it clear that the wrong party has been sued, and that the aggrieved party ought to have looked elsewhere to make good its loss.
These documents, recordings or data are only available once litigation is at an advanced stage. They may expose solid grounds for liability on the part of the Defendant. Had access to these documents, recordings or data been available at the outset, there would have been a strong incentive for the Defendant to settle the claim without compounding the harm by forcing the aggrieved party to embark on an expensive and time consuming process of enforcing its rights.
In the words of Cameron JA in his dissenting judgement in UNITAS HOSPITAL v VAN WYK AND ANOTHER 2006 (4) SA 436 (SCA) “Litigation involves massive costs, time, personnel, effort and risks. Where access to a document can assist in avoiding the initiation of litigation, or opposition to it, the objects of the statute suggest that access should be granted.”
The statute to which Cameron JA refers is the Promotion of Access to Information Act 2 of 2000 (PAIA). This Act is aimed at giving effect to every person’s right to access to information expressed in Section 32 of the Constitution. Section 32 of the Constitution provides:
Everyone has the right of access to:
(a) any information held by the State; and
(b) any information that is held by another person and that is required for the exercise or protection of any rights.
An aggrieved party can therefore utilise the mechanism provided for in PAIA with a view to accessing documents, computer files, tape or video recordings, email messages and the like.
A decision regarding whether to employ the procedure embodied in PAIA must be made at an early stage of any dispute resolution process. Once legal proceedings (in the form of an action or application launched in a court of law) have commenced, the parties to that legal process are restricted to utilising the applicable court procedures and cannot then seek to apply for access in terms of PAIA.
An application for access to information under PAIA can be directed either at a public body such as a government department or a state owned enterprise, or at a private body such as a natural person or commercial corporate entity. The requirements to be met by an applicant when applying for access to information in the hands of a private body are more onerous, since in addition to meeting the requirements of an application directed at a public body, the applicant must show that the record in question is required for the exercise or protection of a right. The applicant need not disclose the reason for its request, where this is directed at a public body.
There are certain limited grounds on which either a public body or a private body may legitimately refuse to give access, and these include that access would involve unreasonable disclosure of personal information about a third party, or if the record in question contains trade secrets of a third party or information supplied in confidence by a third party which could reasonable be expected to put that third party at a disadvantage in contractual negotiations or commercial competition. Other grounds relate to the endangerment of the life or physical safety of individuals or of security of buildings, transport systems or other property. An obvious exception is a record which is privileged in legal proceedings since one cannot access records under PAIA which would protected from discovery in terms of the normal rules applicable in legal proceedings.
The obvious advantage of the PAIA process is that the aggrieved party will obtain the documentation much sooner. This fact has a number of important implications.
- Very often documents, recordings or computer data are lost or destroyed over time. Obtaining copies at an early stage will avoid any prejudice arising from this type of incompetence.
- If the aggrieved party obtains all relevant records at an early stage it will be better placed, at the outset, to assess the prospects of success of litigation and to focus on the areas most likely to found a solid case at the trial, thus saving time and money. The lawyers representing the aggrieved party in any legal processes which may follow will be armed with the appropriate knowledge required for accurate pleading of the case, meaning that it should not be necessary to make amendments to the pleadings at a later stage, again saving time and money.
- The prospective Defendant will be in a position, at an early stage, to more accurately assess their prospects of successfully defeating the claim. If the evidence is such that they must accept that there is a high probability of a court finding against them, they are more likely to accede to a reasonable settlement of the claims, knowing that the aggrieved party is also in possession of this evidence.
Our Courts are very concerned that the provisions of PAIA not be used in circumstances where it is more appropriate to utilise the court procedures which have been in existence far longer. Our Courts do not allow what is termed as “a fishing expedition”.
The applicant would have to show that the records requested are required because they will afford the applicant with a substantial advantage or that there is an element of need. The fact that the records can be obtained from another source may be raised to substantiate a refusal by a private body. It would be helpful, in order to meet this requirement to show, for example, that the documents are necessary in order for the applicant to identify the correct Defendant and/or in order to properly formulate its claim.
When an aggrieved party contemplates proceedings aimed at the enforcement of its rights it would be well advised to first consider whether the mechanism provided for in PAIA can and ought to be employed before launching into formal court proceedings.