Hoarding involves the collection of an excessive number of items of (often) low value, as well as an inability to throw such items away. Hoarding often results in squalor. Hoarding and squalor can have a significant adverse impact on neighbourhood health and amenity and can be a difficult issue for local councils to resolve.
This Essential Guide provides guidance to councils on the options which are available to them under the Local Government Act 1993 (LG Act) to address hoarding in their communities.
Options under the Local Government Act 1993
Section 124 of the LG Act contains a range of orders which may be appropriate to address a hoarding situation. These include:
- Where articles or matter are being kept on premises in the immediate vicinity of a public place (such as a road or park) and in a manner that creates “unsightly conditions”, a council can give an order under item 10 of s.124 of the LG Act requiring the owner or occupier to remove or stack those articles or matter, to cover those articles or matter, to erect fences or screens, or to plant trees.
- Where birds or animals are being kept on premises that are of an inappropriate kind or number, or are being kept inappropriately, a council can give an order under item 18 of s.124 of the LG Act to the occupier of the premises requiring that they not keep birds or animals on the premises other than birds or animals of such kinds, in such numbers or in such a manner as specified in the order. The relevant standards for keeping birds or animals are in Part 5 of Schedule 2 of the LG Regulations.
- Where the land or premises are not in a safe or healthy condition, a council can give an order under item 21 of s.124 of the LG Act requiring the owner or occupier to do or refrain from doing such things as are specified in the order to ensure that land is, or premises are, placed or kept in a safe or healthy condition.
- Where waste is present or generated on the land or premises and is not being dealt with satisfactorily, and is not regulated by the Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997, a council can give an order under item 22 of s.124 of the LG Act to the owner, occupier or person responsible for the waste (or waste receptacle) requiring them to store, treat, process, collect, remove, dispose of or destroy the waste in the manner specified in the order.
- Where waste on residential premises is causing or is likely to cause a threat to public health or the health of any individual, a council can give an order under item 22A of s.124 of the LG Act to the owner or occupier of the premises requiring them to remove or dispose of the waste or to refrain from keeping waste on those premises.
A council can issue a combined order for a number of Items in the Table to s.124 of the LG Act under s.143, but an order under Item 22A cannot be included in a combined order.
Evidence and inspections
To support the giving of an order, a qualified and authorised council officer or contractor will first need to inspect the land or premises to identify the type, volume and location of the hoarded material and assess what order (or combination of orders) is appropriate in the circumstances. As part of this process we recommend that the investigating officer:
- take photographs of the property, including from nearby public places;
- draft a detailed file note of the type and volume of materials being hoarded;
- identify the location of those materials on the property, potentially by creating a map or sketch plan showing the different areas on which the material is located; and
- look for evidence of the presence of vermin or feral animals.
The investigating officer will then need to prepare a report indicating whether and why, in their view, the circumstances warrant the giving of an order. We also recommend that the investigating officer makes a record of any complaints received from the neighbours about the hoarding and obtains a written signed statement from the closest neighbours detailing the impacts they experience as a result of the hoarding.
An authorised person can only inspect residential premises (including the curtilage of those premises) with the consent of the occupier. Where the occupier does not give their consent, then it may necessary to consider other options such as inspecting the land from adjacent public land or neighbouring private land (with the consent of the owners of that land). If that is not practicable, it may be necessary to obtain a search warrant.
Giving notice of the Council’s intention to give an order
There is a strict process under Part 2 of Chapter 7 of the LG Act for the issuing of orders. Except in the case of an emergency, or an order to be issued under item 22A, the Council must first give written notice of its intention to issue the order. In drafting the notice, the council should ensure that the terms of the proposed order are realistic, are appropriate to the circumstances and are supported by the evidence gathered by the council. The terms of the proposed order will also need to be as precise as possible to ensure the recipient understands exactly what they are required to do. For example, adopting a general description of the materials as ’waste’ or ‘junk’ can be problematic, especially where the hoarder considers that the items have value. We recommend that an order include a detailed description of the hoarded items where possible, as well as a sketch plan showing the location of those materials. Proposing a staggered approach to disposing of hoarded items can be a good method to achieve a gradual but measurable clean-up process.
Giving an order
After the date specified in the notice of intention for the recipient to make representations has passed the council will need to do another inspection of the site to determine whether the circumstances necessitating the issue of the order are still present. If they are, the council will need to consider any representations which have been made in deciding whether to give the order (or an amended order).
If, after giving proper consideration to any representations received from the person to whom the notice of intention was given, the council decides to issue the order then it should make sure that the order includes the reasons why the council has decided to exercise its discretion to give the order in the circumstances. These reasons should not simply restate the circumstances in which an order may be given that are mentioned in the table to s.124 of the LG Act and should clearly explain why the order is being given.
The order will need to be served using one of the methods listed in s.710 of the LG Act, and a file note kept of the method of service.
Review, appeal and enforcement options
The recipient of an order under s.124 of the LG Act (other than an order under item 22A) can seek review of the order by the NSW Land and Environment Court (the Court). Any application for review must be commenced within 28 days of the date the order is given. In such an appeal the Court will review the circumstances and decide for itself whether an order should be made and, if so, in what terms. The legal validity of an order can also be challenged under s.674 of the LG Act.
After the period of time for compliance with the order has passed, the council will need to do a further inspection to see if the order has been complied with (in part or at all) or whether it is necessary to take additional steps to enforce compliance.
If the work required by an order is not done within the specified time, a council can do ‘all such things as are necessary or convenient to give effect to the terms of the order, including the carrying out of any work required by the order’. While this seems like a broad power, we do not recommend that this power be exercised without an order from the Court authorising that work to be done, as a council may otherwise be found to be trespassing or unable to recover the costs it incurred in having done the necessary work.
The failure to comply with an order is also a breach of the LG Act which a council can seek to remedy or restrain by bringing Class 4 civil enforcement proceedings in the NSW Land and Environment Court. Civil enforcement proceedings are directed to remedying an existing breach, but can also be forward looking in the sense that they seek to prevent future breaches of the law (eg by ordering that a person not keep specified waste on their property). In such proceedings, the Court has a wide discretion to make such orders as it considers appropriate, including an order enabling the council to take the necessary clean up action and recover the reasonable costs it incurs in doing so.
Alternative options under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979
In some circumstances a council may be able to take action under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act (EPA Act) in response to a hoarding situation. For example, the hoarding of material may sometimes constitute prohibited development or development for which consent is required but has not been obtained, amounting to a breach of the EPA Act. Further details on the issue and enforcement of development control orders given under the EPA Act can be found in our two-part Essential Guide series on EPA Act orders, found here.