The analysis methodology considered patent coverage for the 5G and 4G standards, contribution to the 5G standard, and nominations from third-party researchers and intellectual property (IP) services providers. IAM compares the patent portfolios of these companies and provides a breakdown by jurisdiction, technology, and litigation developments. According to IAM, Samsung possesses the largest and highest quality patent portfolio, with around 265,000 grants worldwide and over 90,000 in the United States. IAM also credited Qualcomm with possessing a high-quality portfolio, with over half of its patents falling within the top 10 percent of 5G patents worldwide. The analysis highlights how Samsung and Qualcomm have seen recent share gains against arguably more historic entities such as Ericsson and Nokia. Overall, the 5G ecosystem does not yet possess a global patent leader, with various companies leading in different countries and in different technologies.