Apple, Macmillan and Penguin Group USA have filed their responses to allegations by the US Department of Justice (and a class action suit by 15 states) that five publishers colluded with Apple to limit price competition in the e-book market. Penguin and Macmillan reject allegations of collusion, criticise the lack of any direct evidence of conspiracy, claim they implemented agency pricing independently and name Amazon as the monopolist. Apple similarly denies that it was part of a conspiracy and accuses the government of siding with “monopoly, rather than competition”. Apple claims it made separate, non-identical contracts with the publishers and that apart from generating revenue the iBookstore was also intended to avoid negative margins incurred by Amazon’s practice of selling eBooks below costs. A non-jury trial has been set for June 2013. The three other publishers have settled but deny misconduct.