All questions

Tax residence and fiscal domicile

i Corporate residence

An entity becomes resident for Thai tax purposes if it is incorporated under Thai law, regardless of where management and control are exercised. A Thai tax-resident entity is subject to CIT in Thailand on a worldwide-income basis.

ii Branch or permanent establishment

A non-locally incorporated entity can have a fiscal presence in Thailand through a branch, agency relationship or permanent establishment. A branch of a foreign company carrying on business in Thailand is subject to CIT on net profits generated from business carried on in Thailand. Profits attributable to a permanent establishment in Thailand are subject to CIT.

Income derived in or from Thailand by an offshore principal as a result of an agency relationship with a person in Thailand is usually subject to CIT. The appointment of an agent (or an employee, representative or go-between) in Thailand exposes the overseas business entity to the risk of being deemed to be 'conducting business in Thailand', and results in a tax burden. However, where the Thai agent does not act solely for the overseas company, but acts as a general agent for various companies (i.e., he or she is an independent agent), income tax liability may not be incurred. There may also be relief effective under applicable agreements for the avoidance of double taxation.