The U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado held that a section of the Copyright Act that removed works from the public domain and restored U.S. copyrights to foreign authors violates the First Amendment. In the case of Lawrence Golan et al. v. John Ashcroft et al, 1:01-cv-01854 (D. Col. 2009), the court held that removing works that were already in the public domain "suppresses the right of reliance" of authors who had used the works before they were protected under the Copyright Act. This is a landmark case, marking the first time a court has held that a part of the Copyright Act violates the First Amendment. The decision not only assures authors who had relied on the works that they can continue to use them without fear of repercussion, but it marks the first constitutional limit placed on copyrighted material. Now, if the music conductors and classical music and movie vendors who brought this case want to celebrate their victory with a song, they do not have to worry about violating a copyright.