One of the most frequent strategies employed by advertisers is to let the consumer hear about the advertised product or service from a third party, someone other than the advertiser itself. At its root, an endorsement or testimonial when used in advertising is the advertiser’s way of saying, “Don’t just take my word for how wonderful my product or service is, listen to this unbiased person whose opinion you should rely upon to make a purchasing decision.” The Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission) originally published Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsement and Testimonials in Advertising (The Guides) in 1972. The Guides have not been updated since 1980. In January, 2007, the FTC sought comments on proposed modifications and updates to the Guides. In particular, the Commission sought comments on whether so-called “disclaimers of typicality,” statements like “Results not typical” or “Your results may vary,” should continue to be a valid way to communicate that a testimonial does not represent experiences consumers will generally achieve with the advertised product or service.
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