Disputes and risk allocation

Dispute resolution

How are disputes between the government and defence contractor resolved?

Arbitration is the preferred mode of dispute resolution in government procurements, including those for defence and security articles. Certain frameworks such as the GFR may also permit dispute resolution through civil remedies before the courts of India.

Procurement contracts under DPP and DPM mandate arbitration to be governed by the laws of India and the seat of arbitration to be India. Subject to the nature, value and strategic importance of the procurement, the power to appoint arbitrators may vest solely with the buyer, with both parties or with an independent body such as the International Chamber of Commerce or its Indian counterpart. The burden of cost of arbitration may also be defined in the contract, which may be shared between the parties or left to the arbitrator or arbitral tribunal to decide.

To what extent is alternative dispute resolution used to resolve conflicts? What is typical for this jurisdiction?

Alternative dispute resolution through arbitration is the preferred and de facto mode of resolving conflicts between the government and contractors, and between the contractors and subcontractors.


What limits exist on the government’s ability to indemnify the contractor in this jurisdiction and must the contractor indemnify the government in a defence procurement?

The government typically does not provide any indemnities under defence and security procurement contracts. On the contractor’s side, the standard contract clauses will require the contractor to indemnify the government against infringement of third-party intellectual property rights in the goods or services purchased from the contractor.

While technically not an indemnity, defence procurement contracts also require the contractor to execute bank guarantees for performance parameters and anti-corruption compliances. It is not uncommon for these instruments to be invoked in defence procurement contracts for failure to adhere to certain aspects of the contract, such as indigenous content requirements, delivery schedule, quality parameters, bribery and undue influence, etc.

Limits on liability

Can the government agree to limit the contractor’s liability under the contract? Are there limits to the contractor’s potential recovery against the government for breach?

The standard contract document under the DPP does not contain any clauses limiting the contractor’s liability. However, under the provisions of the Indian Contract Act 1872 (ICA) an aggrieved party is only permitted to seek compensation to the extent of loss or damage that may naturally arise from a breach that could reasonably have been foreseen at the time of execution of the contract.

The courts in India consider damages to be restitutive and not punitive in nature, hence are reluctant to award punitive damages. Therefore, the liability of both the contractor and the MoD would be limited to direct losses, in the absence of any express clauses to the contrary.

There are no statutory or regulatory restrictions on any claim of damages sought against the government. The Indian courts do not accord any special privileges to the government with respect to contractual disputes.

Risk of non-payment

Is there risk of non-payment when the government enters into a contract but does not ensure there are adequate funds to meet the contractual obligations?

Defence and security acquisitions are undertaken based on firm budgetary allocations. Therefore, the likelihood for shortfall of funds in a defence procurement is extremely unlikely. Defence budgets are occasionally revised mid-year by allocating unspent funds by other ministries to meet the requirement of unforeseen procurements.

Parent guarantee

Under what circumstances must a contractor provide a parent guarantee?

In circumstances where the prime bidder or contractor is unable to tender the bank guarantee mandated to be submitted as part of the bid, the MoD will require the parent to submit such guarantee on behalf of the bidder or contractor. It is standard practice by the MoD to require bidders to submit bank guarantees against all payment streams that MoD is required to make to the prime bidder or contractor.