A dizzying array of civil and criminal provisions address false or fraudulent representations made to, and false claims filed with, Medicare, Medicaid, and state and federal health care programs. This attached article, first published by the American Health Lawyers Association, briefly identifies relevant criminal and civil provisions relating to these issues, and then focuses more closely on recent uses of the civil False Claims Act (“FCA”) in government investigations of health care providers, suppliers, and manufacturers, including a section on state false claims legislation. Finally, it discusses the issue of distinguishing overpayments from false claims and provide information on the voluntary disclosure program of the Office of the Inspector General (“OIG”) of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).