CLEARY v. PHILIP MORRIS INC. (August 25, 2011)
A class-action complaint brought against Philip Morris in 1998, and later amended, sought disgorgement of profits under an unjust enrichment theory, alleging that Philip Morris concealed facts about the dangers of cigarettes in its marketing and advertising. The complaint alleged three classes: an "addiction" class consisting of Illinois residents who purchased cigarettes between 1953 in 1965, a "youth marketing" class consisting of Illinois residents who first purchased cigarettes as minors, and a "lights" class consisting of Illinois residents who purchased Marlboro Lights. The class plaintiffs withdrew the "lights" class allegations because of another similar pending case. That "lights" case was ultimately unsuccessful in Illinois state court but a 2008 United States Supreme Court case breathed new life into the theory. The class plaintiffs therefore amended their complaint again, reinserting a "lights" class claim. The amended complaint added as defendants other companies who manufactured light cigarettes, including Lorillard Tobacco Company, and also added allegations regarding other brands of light cigarettes manufactured by Philip Morris. Lorillard removed the case to federal court under the Class Action Fairness Act. The district court rejected plaintiffs request to remand on the grounds that the new "lights" claim did not relate back to the original complaint, then dismissed Lorillard on statute of limitations grounds, and then again rejected a request to remand on the ground that Lorillard, the reason for the removal, was no longer a defendant. Later, the district court dismissed as time-barred all claims against the other non-Philip Morris defendants and limited the claims against Phillip Morris to the original Marlboro Lights claims. Ultimately, Judge Kennelly (N.D. Ill.) dismissed the unjust enrichment claims as a matter of law. The class appeals.
In their opinion, Seventh Circuit Judges Cudahy, Manion, and Hamilton affirmed. Before turning to the merits of the unjust enrichment claim, the Court briefly addressed the district court's refusal to remand after the Lorillard dismissal and its limitation of the "lights" claim to Marlboro Lights. With respect to the former, the Court stated that jurisdiction under CAFA is determined at the time of removal. Therefore, Lorillard's dismissal after removal did not affect the court's jurisdiction. With respect to the latter, the Court noted that an amendment relates back to an earlier complaint only when it arises out of the same occurrence. Here, the expansion of the allegations to include other Phillip Morris light cigarette brands would add additional class members and encompass numerous additional transactions. The additional allegations, therefore, do not arise out of the same occurrence and do not relate back. Turning to the unjust enrichment allegations, the Court recognized some tension in Illinois law as to whether unjust enrichment is an independent cause of action or must be tied to a separate claim. It ultimately decided that it did not have to resolve the tension, given its conclusion that the class allegations did not state a cause of action. An unjust enrichment claim must allege defendant's unjust retention of a benefit to the plaintiffs detriment and that the retention was unjust. The only detriment plaintiffs allege, however, is a violation of their right to be informed of the actual dangers and risks inherent in cigarettes. Under plaintiffs' theory, the class would include consumers for whom that alleged violation was not a detriment -- the consumers who would have acted no differently had they known the truth. Without any allegations of harm or that they would have acted differently, the class allegations cannot support a claim of unjust enrichment.