Nearly all states without a remote online notarization (RON) law acted to adopt some form of remote notarization in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Many of these states have now enacted permanent RON laws, or remote ink notarization (RIN) laws, while others ended their state of emergency without permanent adoption in place.
As of the date of this publication, 36 states have enacted RON laws, some of which include provisions also enabling RIN: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois (effective July 1, 2022), Indiana, Iowa, Kansas (effective January 1, 2022), Kentucky, Louisiana (effective February 1, 2022), Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey (effective October 20, 2021), New Mexico (effective January 1, 2022), North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont (requires regulations to become effective), Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.
Additionally, two states have enacted standalone RIN laws: Alabama and South Dakota.
With respect to recent changes in Illinois, it is unclear whether the state supports any form of remote notarization. In June 2020, when the Illinois legislature adopted SB2135 approving the governor's executive orders enabling remote notarization, the bill incorporated remote notarization into the state's Electronic Commerce Security Act (ECSA) and made remote notarization effective for the duration of the COVID-19 emergency. However, on June 25, 2021, the Illinois legislature enacted SB2176 which repealed the ECSA in its entirety and replaced it with the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (UETA). The Illinois UETA does not include any provisions enabling remote notarization. Now that the ECSA has been repealed and the last executive order permitting remote notarization expired without renewal or extension, the status of remote notarization in the state is unclear – although the Secretary of State still appears to support remote notarization as formerly permitted under the ECSA. This status will be clarified once SB2664 becomes effective in July 2022, enabling RON in the state.
Of the remaining 12 states, California and South Carolina never adopted any form of remote notarization during the COVID-19 pandemic. The remote notarization orders of Delaware, New York and New Hampshire lapsed or were terminated in June, apparently without renewal. The other seven states have continued their pandemic temporary adoption of remote notary through at least the end of this month – Connecticut, Georgia, Maine, Massachusetts, Mississippi, North Carolina and Rhode Island.
We are also starting to see case law supporting remote notarization. In Ryerson v. Ryerson, 2021 N.Y. Slip. Op. 21172, the Supreme Court of New York held that a notary acting under the state's temporary COVID-19 law enabling remote notarization acted in a sufficiently timely manner when executing the notarial certificate of acknowledgment within four days of the parties' execution of a separation agreement before the notary using Zoom technology. The parties also complied with some of the terms of the separation agreement before the defendant brought the pending motion seeking that the agreement be declared void because the parties failed to send a signed version of it to the remote notary using fax or email promptly after signing, as required by NY Executive Order No. 202.7.
The parties met together at the marital residence and jointly conducted the Zoom audio-video conference with the notary, presented the notary with their driver's licenses and verbally confirmed they were in New York state. Additionally, the notary required each party to verbally confirm at that time that each party was comfortable signing the agreement, after which the notary watched each party sign the agreement on the Zoom video feed. Each party also verbally confirmed they signed it. However, the plaintiff then stated she did not have a document scanner or fax machine at the marital residence. While still on the Zoom conference, the notary instructed the plaintiff to mail the signed agreement back to him. The notary received the signed agreement by mail approximately four days thereafter and completed the notarial certificate of acknowledgment.
The court found no indication in New York notarial law or case law of any time limitation on the notary's execution of a certificate of acknowledgment. It determined that all requirements of the acknowledgement were met and the delay of delivery in this case was not sufficient to render the acknowledgment ineffective as a matter of law. The case appears to stand for the proposition that minor failures to strictly comply with remote notarization processes may not render the notarized document void so long as the underlying purposes of the notarial act are fulfilled.
To stay current on the status of remote notarization in the wake of COVID-19, see our alert, Coronavirus: Federal and state governments work quickly to enable remote online notarization to meet global crisis, which is updated monthly with recent developments.
(This alert contains information which is current as of July 27, 2021. We are actively monitoring state and federal activities in this rapidly changing area and will update this alert on a periodic basis. Please contact the authors of this alert for the most current information.)
As more businesses are forced to work remotely due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, several federal and state governments are moving quickly to enable fully electronic processes to keep businesses operating.
On May 13, 2021, Senate Bill 1625, the Securing and Enabling Commerce Using Remote and Electronic Notarization Act of 2021 (the SECURE Notarization Act), was introduced as bipartisan legislation to authorize and establish minimum standards for electronic and remote notarizations that occur in or affect interstate commerce. (A prior version of the SECURE Notarization Act was introduced in 2020, but was never voted on). If the SECURE Notarization Act becomes law in its current form, it would authorize every notary in the US to perform remote online notarizations (RON) using audio-visual communications and tamper-evident technology in connection with interstate transactions. [updated June 10, 2021].
Until adoption of the SECURE Notarization Act or similar federal legislation takes place, some federal agencies are implementing relief on a case-by-case basis. On June 3, 2020, the Internal Revenue Service issued Notice 2020-42 allowing retirement plan participants or beneficiaries during the year 2020 to meet the witnessing requirements for certain participant elections through use of remote notarization, including the spousal consent required under § 417 of the Internal Revenue Code. Under existing regulations, some participant elections must be witnessed in the “physical presence” of a plan representative or a notary public. Notice 2020-42 allows the “physical presence” requirement to be satisfied, in the case of a notary public, by an electronic system that uses remote notarization via live audio-video technology so long as that system otherwise satisfies the requirements of participant elections under 26 CFR § 1.401(a)-21(d)(6) and is consistent with state law requirements that apply to the notary public. [updated July 31, 2020].
Currently, 34 states have enacted some form of permanent remote online notarization (RON) law: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming [updated July 15, 2021].
UPDATE - The Governor of New Jersey signed A4250 on July 22, 2021 adopting RON in the state effective October 21, 2021. Other provisions of the bill become effective July 22, 2022 [updated July 23, 2021].
UPDATE - On January 23, 2021, the Governor of Illinois signed SB2664 adopting RON in the state effective the later of January 1, 2022 of the adoption of regulations by the Secretary of State. Other provisions of the bill become effective July 1, 2022 [updated July 26, 2021].
The basic components of each state’s RON law are to:
- Allow notarial acts to be completed using audio-video communication, including acts where the signer is located outside the state in which the notary is authorized to operate
- Require that the notary authenticate the person signing and
- Require recording of the audio-video communication.*
The state RON laws are very detailed and vary with respect to, among other things, authentication, journaling and retention periods.
In states that have yet to enact RON or otherwise make their RON law effective, emergency short-term measures are being issued. The below chart reviews each state and any RON law and/or emergency order enacted in such state supporting any form of remote notarization:
- Alabama – On March 26, 2020, the Governor of Alabama issued a fourth supplemental state-of-emergency Proclamation which allows notaries who are licensed attorneys, or are operating through licensed attorneys, to use videoconferencing programs to notarize signatures and confirm the signatures of witnesses, and all documents must be returned to the notary for certification and execution; on April 2, 2020 the governor issued a fifth supplemental state-of-emergency Proclamation, updating the prior Proclamation to permit all Alabama notices to notarize tangible paper documents using videoconferencing under specific guidelines during the state of emergency (currently expiring on July 6, 2021); on April 28, 2021 SB275 was signed by the Governor making remote notarization effective in the state as of July 1, 2021 [updated June 10, 2021].
- Alaska – On April 10, 2020, Alaska enacted SB241, which allows a will testator and witnesses to appear before a notary using audio video conferencing; on April 30, 2020 Alaska enacted bill HB124 enabling remote online notarization in the state [updated May 5, 2020].
- Arizona – On April 8, 2020, the Governor of Arizona issued Executive Order 2020-26, making immediately effective Arizona’s RON laws (A.R.S. § 41-371, et seq., effective July 1, 2020) and guidance enabling remote online notarization in the state.
- Arkansas – On March 30, 2020, the Governor of Arkansas issued Executive Order 20-12, as amended by Executive Order 20-14 issued April 9, 2020 (and extended by Executive Order 20-37 to August 17, 2020 and Executive Order 20-45 to October 13, 2020 and Executive Order 20-48 to December 12, 2020 and Executive Order 20-51 to December 31, 2020 and Executive Order 20-53 to March 1, 2021, and Executive Order 21-03 to March 21, 2021, and Executive Order 21-07 which expired May 30, 2021), which suspends certain provisions of Arkansas notarial laws to enable certain types of notaries public (i) to meet the in-person requirement using real-time audio and visual means to notarize paper documents, as well as (ii) when serving as an eNotary under Arkansas law, to use real-time audio and visual means to meet the in-person requirement when notarizing electronic documents, provided that, in each case, the notary and the signer are both physically located in Arkansas at the time of signing, among other conditions. On April 29, 2021, Arkansas enacted SB340 (Act 1047) which is effective retroactive to March 30, 2020, and allows for remote online notarization in the state [updated June 10, 2021].
- California – No RON or COVID-19 enactment to date; the California Secretary of State website endorses its residents’ use of mobile California notaries and does not permit remote notarizations [updated May 5, 2020].
- Colorado – On March 27, 2020, the Governor of Colorado issued Executive Order D 2020 019 (extended through April 30, 2020 by Executive Order D 2020 030 and through May 30, 2020 by Executive Order D 2020-047 and through June 28, 2020 by Executive Order D 2020-087), temporarily suspending the requirement to appear personally before notarial officers to perform notarizations, and the Secretary of State has issued temporary emergency rules and guidance to permit notarial officers to perform remote notarizations using real-time audio-video communication; the Executive Orders expired on June 28, 2020; however, Colorado enacted SB20-096 which, in addition to implementing RON in the state effective December 31, 2020, endorsed the continued use of audio-video communication to perform remote notarial acts until December 31, 2020, and the Secretary of State adopted Notary Program Rules on June 26, 2020 and updated such Rules on October 15, 2020 continuing remote notarization on a temporary basis; the Secretary of State adopted new temporary Rules effective December 31, 2020 and made these Rules permanent effective January 30, 2021 [updated June 10, 2020].
- Connecticut – On March 23, 2020, the Governor of Connecticut issued Executive Order 7K, immediately authorizing notarial acts to be performed on tangible paper documents utilizing audio-visual technology for persons physically located in Connecticut under certain conditions, and on March 30, 2020 issued Executive Order 7Q, which supersedes Order 7K and adds provisions allowing attorneys to remotely administer a self-proving affidavit to a will (extended on June 16, 2020 for the duration of the public health emergency by Executive Order 7ZZ; extended through June 30, 2021 by Executive Order 12B, and through September 30, 2021 by Executive Order 13) [updated July 23, 2021].
- Delaware – On April 15, 2020, the Governor of Delaware issued an Eleventh Modification of the Declaration of a State of Emergency for the State of Delaware which enables the use of audio-visual technology for signers and notaries located in Delaware using identity verification by an attorney; however, the Delaware Secretary of State updated its website to include an endorsement of its residents’ use of remote notarization capabilities under the laws of states which permit remote notarizations; on July 16, 2020 Delaware enacted SB247 which continues remote notarization under the Governor’s order through June 30, 2021; On June 30, 2021 Delaware enacted HB216 which continues remote notarization under the Governor's order through June 30, 2022 [updated July 15, 2020].
- District of Columbia – On May 13, 2020, the Mayor signed Bill 23-750 to add remote online notary provisions to the District’s version of the Revised Uniform Law on Notarial Acts and Bill 23-757 signed on May 27, 2020 (Bill 23-759 signed on June 8, 2020 further modified and extended the resolution through September 6, 2020 Bill 23-869 signed on August 19, 2020 further modified and extended the resolution through November 17, 2020 Bill 23-0758 signed on July 7, 2020 extended the resolution through May 21, 2021, Bill 24-0139 signed on March 17, 2021 further extended and modified the resolution through June 15, 2021, Bill 24-0140 signed on May 3, 2021 further modified and extended the resolution through February 9, 2022, and Bill 24-0257 signed on June 7, 2021 further modified and extended the resolution through September 5, 2021); however, the Mayor’s office has not issued the required guidance to enable remote notarizations in the District [updated July 15, 2021].
- Florida – Florida enacted RON effective January 1, 2020 with the execution of wills and estate planning documents using RON effective July 1, 2020.
- Georgia – On March 31, 2020, the Governor of Georgia issued an Executive Order allowing the use of real-time audio-visual communication technology to meet the requirement for physical presence before a notary public with respect to real estate documents, and on April 9, 2020 issued another Executive Order generally allowing remote notarization and attestation of documents during the COVID-19 emergency (currently expiring on August 29, 2021) by notaries practicing under the supervision of a Georgia attorney, on June 30, 2021 issued another Executive Order modifying both prior orders and continuing both orders as modified through the COVID-19 emergency, and on July 23, 2021 issued another Executive Order restating the prior orders and continuing through the COVID-19 emergency [updated July 26, 2021]; and the State Bar of Georgia issued general best practices under such order [updated January 4, 2021]; and on March 27, 2020 the Georgia Supreme Court issued an Order temporarily suspending the attorney Rules of Professional Conduct requirements for in person attendance at real estate closings, and enabling Georgia attorneys to participate in real estate closings using audio-video conferencing.
- Hawaii – On March 29, 2020, the Governor of Hawaii issued Executive Order 20-02 temporarily suspending the in-person requirement for notarizations and adopting rules enabling the use of audio-video technology to notarize paper documents (such rules extended and modified by Fourteenth Proclamation dated October 13, 2020 and further amended by Fifteenth Proclamation dated November 23, 2020 to enable remote witnessing of wills – extended through February 14, 2021 by Seventeenth Proclamation, further extended through April 13, 2021 by Eighteenth Proclamation, and further extended through June 8, 2021 by Nineteenth Proclamation, and further extended through August 6, 2021 by Twenty-First Proclamation); and on September 15 Hawaii enacted RON effective January 1, 2021 [updated April 26, 2021].
- Idaho – Idaho enacted RON effective January 1, 2020.
- Illinois – [UPDATE] On March 26, 2020, the Governor of Illinois issued Executive Order No. 14 (extended by Executive Order No. 33, extended through June 27, 2020 by Executive Order No. 39 issued on May 29, 2020 and approved by the legislature on June 12, 2020 in SB2135 for the duration of the Governor’s disaster declaration (currently through June 27, 2021) waiving the in-person requirement for notarial acts, provided that the notarial act is performed in accordance with guidance issued by the Secretary of State, and allowing any act of witnessing required by Illinois law to be completed by two-way audio-visual communication, with conditions; Illinois further enacted SB1857 on June 26, 2020, creating a notarization Task Force on Best Practices and Standards to Implement Electronic Notarization. On June 25, 2021, the Illinois legislature enacted SB2176, which repealed the state's Electronic Commerce Security Act (ECSA) and replaced it with the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act. However, SB2135, enacted on June 12, 2020, discussed above, ratified the Governor's executive orders and adopted remote notarization in the state for the duration of the COVID-19 emergency by adding remote notarization as a provision to the ECSA. On July 23, 2021, Illinois adopted RON in the state in SB2664, effective the later of January 1, 2022 or the date the Secretary of State adopts supporting regulations. Despite this action, the status of remote notarization remains unclear until the RON bill becomes effective since the ECSA was repealed and the last Executive Order permitting remote notarization expired without renewal or extension - although the Secretary of State still appears to support remote notarization [updated July 26, 2021].
- Indiana – Indiana adopted RON effective July 1, 2019. On March 31, 2020, the Governor of Indiana issued Executive Order 20-15 which allowed for the retroactive application of agency regulations, and the Secretary of State promulgated regulations retroactively effective as of March 31, 2020 [updated April 28, 2020].
- Iowa – On March 22, 2020, the Governor of Iowa issued a Proclamation of Disaster Emergency (extended through June 25, 2020 by Proclamation issued May 26, 2020 and extended through July 1, 2020 by Proclamation issued June 25, 2020) which enabled Iowa notaries to perform remote online notarizations in accordance with guidance of the Iowa Secretary of State and compliance with section 6 of Iowa Senate bill SF475 regarding notarial acts performed for remotely located individuals (which became effective July 1, 2020); the June 25, 2020 Proclamation (extended through August 20, 2020 by Proclamation dated July 24, 2020 extended through September 20, 2020 by Proclamation issued August 21, 2020 extended through October 18, 2020 by Proclamation issued September 18, 2020 extended through November 15, 2020 by Proclamation issued October 16, 2020 extended through December 10, 2020 by Proclamation issued November 10, 2020 extended through January 8, 2021 by Proclamation issued December 9, 2020 extended through February 6, 2021 by Proclamation issued January 7, 2021 extended through March 7, 2021 by Proclamation issued February 5, 2021 extended through April 4, 2021 by Proclamation issued March 5, 2021 extended through May 2, 2021 by Proclamation issued April 2, 2021 extended through May 30, 2021 by Proclamation issued April 30, 2021 extended through June 26, 2021 by Proclamation issued May 27, 2021, extended through July 25, 2021 by Proclamation issued June 25, 2021) authorized remote witnessing for legal documents by testators, settlors, principals, witnesses and other persons [updated June 10, 2021].
- Kansas – On April 9, 2020, the Governor of Kansas issued Executive Order 20-20 (extended through May 31, 2020 by Executive Order 20-28, through June 13, 2020 by Executive Order 20-40, through September 15, 2020 by Executive Order 20-49, through January 26, 2021 by Executive Order 20-64, through March 31, 2021 by Executive Order 21-02, through the duration of the state of emergency (currently expiring June 15, 2021) by Executive Order 21-10, and rescinded effective July 15, 2021 by Executive Order 21-23) temporarily allowing notaries to utilize audio-video communication technology with respect to signers and witnesses’ execution of paper documents, including deeds, wills and powers of attorney, and on June 8 enacted HB 2016 to ensure the validity of such remotely notarized acts; On April 21, 2021, Kansas adopted remote online notarization in the state SB106 effective January 1, 2022 [updated June 29, 2021].
- Kentucky – On March 30, 2020, Kentucky enacted legislation (SB 150) which waives any state in-person requirement for notarizations, enabling notarizations to be performed via video teleconference in real time and permitting such paper documents to be signed or notarized in counterparts; and the state enacted RON effective January 1, 2020 for both electronic and tangible paper documents [updated April 28].
- Louisiana – On March 26, 2020, the Governor of Louisiana issued Proclamation No. 37 JBE 2020 (extended by Proclamation No. 41 JBE 2020 which expired without renewal on April 30, 2020) waiving the state’s in-person appearance requirement and enabling notarizations using audio-visual technology, with certain exclusions for the execution of trusts and other instruments, and requiring the recordation of such notarized instruments with a certification from the notary that the tangible copy is accurate and, on June 9, 2020 the legislature enacted HB122 to ratify and validate remote notarizations conducted during the pandemic; and, on June 11, 2020 Louisiana enacted HB274 to implement remote online notarization in the state effective upon the earlier enactment of the federal SECURE Notarization Act or February 1, 2022 [updated September 18, 2020].
- Maine – On April 8, 2020, the Governor of Maine issued Executive Order 37 to temporarily enable the use of two-way audio-video communication technology to perform nearly all notarial acts, including estate planning instruments, using paper instruments in accordance with certain restrictions, such order to continue for the duration of the state of emergency (which expired June 30, 2021) plus 30 days; On June 23, 2021 Maine enacted HP1033 which continued remote notarization in the state through January 1, 2023 [updated July 27, 2021].
- Maryland – On March 30, 2020, the Governor of Maryland issued Executive Order number 20-03-30-04, temporarily waiving the in-person requirement for notarizations and allowing notarizations utilizing communication technology (amended and restated on September 29, 2020 by Executive Order 20-09-29-01 to address remote notarization of only estate and trust documents, effective for the duration of the state of emergency, and rescinded effective August 15, 2021 by Proclamation dated June 15, 2021), subject to guidance of the Secretary of State; on March 18, 2020 the Maryland Court of Appeals enacted an administrative order expressly accepting electronic records and signatures, and electronic notarial acts, created in accordance with the Maryland UETA for filing in land records in those counties utilizing the Simplifile application; and Maryland enacted RON effective October 1, 2020 and issued regulations effective October 5, 2020 [updated June 29, 2021].
- Massachusetts – On April 23, 2020, Massachusetts enacted S.2645 authorizing notaries to perform remote ink notarizations during the Governor’s declaration of a state of emergency plus three business days thereafter (the state of emergency expired June 15, 2021); On June 16, 2021 Massachusetts extended S.2645 through December 15, 2021 by enactment of S.2475 [updated July 15, 2021].
- Michigan – On April 8, 2020, the Governor of Michigan issued Executive Order 2020-41 (expanded and extended to June 30, 2020 by Executive Order 2020-74, rescinded and expanded in Executive Order 2020-131 to July 31, 2020 rescinded and expanded in Executive Order 2020-158 to August 31, 2020 rescinded and extended to September 30, 2020 by Executive Order 2020-173, and rescinded and extended to October 31, 2020 by Executive Order 2020-187) temporarily waiving strict compliance with UETA and Michigan notarial laws by governmental agencies and the general public to enable electronic notarizations and allow remote electronic notarizations utilizing two-way real-time audiovisual technology, and the Secretary of State has issued guidance. On October 2, 2020, the Michigan Supreme Court ruled that the Governor lacked constitutional authority to extend the state of emergency in Michigan after April 30, 2020 and that all executive orders issued after that date are legally invalid. On October 4, 2020, the Michigan Attorney General stated that the Attorney General will no longer enforce the executive orders through criminal prosecution. In response, on November 5, 2020, Michigan enacted HB6297, which enables remote notarization performed between April 30, 2020 and January 1, 2021 (extended to July 1, 2021 by HB1187); enacted HB6294 which enables remote notarization on estate and trust documents during the same period (extended to July 1, 2021 by HB1189); and HB6296, which requires registers of deeds and financial institutions to accept electronic documents notarized during that same period (extended to July 1, 2021 by HB1188). Michigan enacted RON effective September 20, 2018 [updated February 10, 2021].
- Minnesota – Minnesota enacted RON effective January 1, 2019; on October 21, 2020, Minnesota enacted HF 15 which suspends the requirement of personal appearance and enables remote notarizations for persons located within the state during the public health emergency and for 60 days thereafter, and automatically expires January 6, 2021 [updated November 5, 2020].
- Mississippi – On April 6, 2020, the Governor of Mississippi issued Executive Order 1467, temporarily suspending the in-person requirement and enabling notarizations to be performed using simultaneous audio-video communication technology on paper or electronic documents for the duration of the COVID 19 event plus 14 days (expiring August 15, 2021), and the Secretary of State has issued related guidance [updated June 29, 2021].
- Missouri – On April 6, 2020, the Governor of Missouri issued Executive Order 20-08 (extended through June 15, 2020 by Executive Order 20-10 further extended to August 28, 2020 by Executive Order 20-12, which expired without renewal) authorizing audio-video technology to be used to satisfy the in-person requirement for notarial acts for both paper and electronic documents, including wills, trusts and powers of attorney, provided that certain conditions are met, and the Secretary of State has issued guidance; on September 3, 2020 the Governor issued Executive Order 20-14 enabling the remote notarization of estate and trust documents through December 30, 2020 further extended to August 31, 2021 by Executive Order 21-7; on July 6, 2020 Missouri enacted RON to be implemented upon the Secretary of State’s approval of RON software for use in the state and emergency rules for RON became effective September 15, 2020 [updated April 27, 2021].
- Montana – Montana enacted RON effective May 4, 2015, which was updated effective October 1, 2019 and which also enables remote notarization as well as RON; and, effective April 8, 2020, the Montana Secretary of State adopted emergency rules allowing flexibility with the appearance of notarial stamp when used on RON acts [updated September 25, 2020].
- Nebraska – On April 1, 2020, the Governor of Nebraska issued Executive Order No. 20-13, immediately enabling LB 186 (effective July 1, 2020) to implement remote online notarizations in the state, and the Secretary of State issued on April 2, 2020 Emergency Regulations; on March 31, 2021 Nebraska enacted LB94 prohibiting invalidation of notarial acts performed pursuant to the Executive Order; Nebraska adopted RON effective July 1, 2020 [updated June 10, 2021].
- Nevada – Nevada enacted RON effective July 1, 2018.
- New Hampshire – On March 23, 2020, the Governor of New Hampshire issued Emergency Order #11 to Executive Order 2020-4 which authorizes notarial acts using audio-visual technology, provided that the signer mails a copy of the signed documents to the notary for certification and the official date and time of notarization shall be the witnessing of the signature using the audio-visual technology; on July 17, 2020 New Hampshire enacted HB1249 adopting remote video notarization of estate planning documents during the state of emergency, applying to wills, trusts and powers of attorney executed on or after March 23, 2020 and ending on the last day of the state of emergency under Executive Order 2020-4 (expired June 11, 2021) [updated June 29, 2020].
- New Jersey – On April 14, 2020, New Jersey enacted AB 3903, enabling remote online notarization in the state for the duration of the COVID-19 state of emergency and public health emergency, and the Division of Revenue and Enterprise Services issued related guidance; On June 4, 2021 the Governor of New Jersey signed Executive Order No. 244 ending the public health emergency but continuing the state of emergency and signed A5820 which supports the continued state of emergency; New Jersey adopted RON on July 22, 2021 to be effective October 21, 2021 - other provisions of the bill become effective on July 22, 2022 [updated July 26, 2021].
- New Mexico – On March 30, 2020, the Governor of New Mexico issued Executive Order 2020-15 (replaced by Executive Order 2020-39 issued June 11, 2020 and in effect until rescinded, modified by Executive Order 2021-30 to remain in effect until July 23, 2021, unless renewed), directing the Notary Compliance and Enforcement Unit to not recommend any discipline for any notary public performing a notarial act using audio-video technology, and notarizing a legible copy of the signed document delivered by the signer either by fax or electronic means, and the Secretary of State has issued guidance; On March 15, 2021, New Mexico adopted remote online notarization SB12 in the state effective January 1, 2022 [updated July 15, 2021].
- New York – On March 19, 2020 the Governor of New York issued Executive Order 202.7 (extended by Executive Order 202.14, further extended through June 6, 2020 by Executive Order 202.28, further extended through July 6, 2020 by Executive Order 202.38, further extended through August 5, 2020 by Executive Order 202.48, further extended through September 4, 2020 by Executive Order 202.55 and by Executive Order 202.551, further extended through October 4, 2020 by Executive Order 202.60, further extended through November 3, 2020 by Executive Order 202.67, further extended through December 3, 2020 by Executive Order 202.72, further extended through January 1, 2021 by Executive Order 202.79, further extended through January 29, 2021 by Executive Order 202.87, further extended through February 26, 2021 by Executive Order 202.92, further extended through March 28, 2021 by Executive Order 202.96, further extended through April 16, 2021 by Executive Order 202.97, further extended through May 25, 2021 by Executive Order 202.103, further extended through July 5, 2021 by Executive Order 202.110) immediately authorizing notarial acts to be performed utilizing audio-visual technology under certain conditions and on March 31, 2020 the New York Secretary of State issued updated guidance clarifying that order, including allowing signatories to sign using electronic signatures in accordance with the New York Electronic Signatures and Records Act, provided that the notary witnesses the electronic signature. On June 24, 2021, the Governor signed Executive Order 210 terminating the state of emergency effective June 25, 2021, including Executive Order 202 and all its successors, thereby no longer permitting notaries to perform electronic or remote notarizations in the state [updated June 29, 2021].
- North Carolina – On May 4, 2020, North Carolina enacted S.704 which allows notaries to perform an “emergency video notarization” using video conference technology on tangible paper documents under certain requirements until August 1, 2020 and on July 1, 2020 North Carolina enacted H1023 which extended the application of S.704 through March 1, 2021, and on March 11, 2021, the state enacted H196 which extended the application of S704 through December 31, 2021, and the Secretary of State has provided guidance [updated April 26, 2021].
- North Dakota – North Dakota enacted RON effective March 8, 2019; the Secretary of State has updated its website to provide guidance [updated May 5, 2020].
- Ohio – Ohio enacted RON effective September 18, 2019.
- Oklahoma – Oklahoma enacted RON effective January 1, 2020.
- Oregon – On June 30, 2020, Oregon enacted HB4212, adopting remote online notarization in the state until June 30, 2021, and the Secretary of State has issued guidance, updated the state’s notary guide and adopted regulations supporting remote online notarization; On June 15, 2021, Oregon enacted SB0765 making the provisions of HB4212 permanent, thereby enacting RON in the state [updated June 17, 2021].
- Pennsylvania – On April 20, 2020, Pennsylvania enacted SB841 (Act 15) to enable remote online notarization in the state with respect to all documents, in tangible or electronic form, during the COVID-19 pandemic (currently expiring August 18, 2021), and the Department of State issued related guidance, which replaces prior announcements and guidance; Pennsylvania enacted RON effective October 29, 2020 and uploaded guidance on the Department of State website [updated June 10, 2020].
- Rhode Island – Effective April 3, 2020, the Secretary of State and the Governor of Rhode Island have authorized remote online notarization in accordance with guidance of the Secretary of State, updated Standards of Conduct and the requirements of R.I. Gen. Laws Chapter 42-30.1 for the duration of the state of emergency (currently expiring July 31, 2021) [updated June 10, 2021].
- South Carolina – No RON or COVID-19 enactment to date.
- South Dakota – South Dakota enacted its version of remote notarization effective March 18, 2019 which enables the use of communication technology only "if the notarial officer: ... affixes the notarial officer's signature to the original tangible document executed by the [principal]" and only if the notary personally knows the principal.
- Tennessee – On April 8 , 2020, the Governor of Tennessee issued Executive Order 26 (extended through May 30, 2020 and further extended to June 30, 2020 by Executive Order 37, further extended to August 29, 2020 by Executive Order 52, further extended to September 30, 2020 by Executive Order 61, further extended to October 30, 2020 by Executive Order 64, further extended to December 29, 2020 by Executive Order 66, further extended to February 27, 2020 by Executive Order 72, further extended to April 28, 2021 by Executive Order 79) expanding the use of remote notarization and witnessing on certain estate planning documents, which must be in tangible, paper form; and Tennessee enacted RON effective July 1, 2019 [updated April 26, 2021].
- Texas – On April 8, 2020, the Governor of Texas suspended various laws to the extent necessary to allow for appearance before a notary public via teleconference to use ink signatures to execute and notarize tangible paper documents related to self-proved wills and medical powers of attorney (suspension extended through the duration of the disaster, currently expiring July 30, 2021); on April 27, 2020 the Governor also suspended the in-person requirement for notarization to enable remote notarization in Texas on real estate documents, which suspension was extended through the duration of the disaster, and the Office of the Attorney General issued guidance [updated June 29, 2021]; Texas enacted RON effective July 1, 2018.
- Utah – Utah enacted RON effective November 1, 2019.
- Vermont – The Vermont Secretary of State issued emergency administrative rules permitting remote notarization of tangible paper documents under certain restrictions for 180 days to address the COVID-19 event (which rules were extended through March 19, 2021, and further extended through September 15, 2021) and guidance under such rules; Vermont further enacted SB114 on April 28, 2020 enabling the witnessing of a power of attorney to be conducted under the emergency administrative rules and filed in land records and enacted SB316 the same day to enable execution of self-proving wills using remote notarization; and Vermont enacted its RON law effective July 1, 2019; however, RON is not yet implemented due to the failure of the Vermont Secretary of State to issue regulations and guidance [updated April 26, 2021].
- Virginia – Virginia enacted RON effective July 1, 2011 and revised its exiting RON laws with HB2064 effective March 11, 2021 [updated April 26, 2021].
- Washington – On March 26, 2020, the Governor of Washington issued Proclamation 20-27 (extended to May 4, 2020 by Proclamation 20-27.1, extended to May 31, 2020 by Proclamation 20-27.2, extended through June 17, 2020 by Proclamation 20-27.3, extended through July 1, 2020 by Proclamation 20-27.4, extended through August 1, 2020 by Proclamation 20-27.5, extended through September 1, 2020 by Proclamation 20-27.6, and extended through September 30, 2020 by Proclamation 20-27.7), making remote online notarization immediately effective in Washington under SB5641 (effective October 1, 2020) for the duration of the COVID 19 event, and the Washington Department of Labor issued emergency rules to implement the Proclamation; and Washington enacted RON effective October 1 and made the emergency regulations permanent effective March 16, 2021 [updated April 26, 2021].
- West Virginia – On March 25, 2020, the Governor of West Virginia issued Executive Order 11-20 (continued in effect by Executive Order 12-21 dated April 19, 2021 until rescinded) suspending the in-person requirement for notarizations and, on March 27, 2020 the Secretary of State adopted emergency rules enabling remote online notarization under certain conditions (which rules were amended on March 31, 2020); On April 19, 2021, West Virginia enacted RON effective June 17, 2021 [updated June 10, 2021].
- Wisconsin – On March 18, 2020, the Wisconsin Department of Financial Institutions issued emergency guidance immediately authorizing remote online notarizations in the state and published emergency rules effective May 9, 2020 [updated June 2, 2020]; and Wisconsin enacted RON in AB125 effective May 1, 2020.
- Wyoming – On March 24, 2020, the Wyoming Secretary of State issued guidance allowing remote online notarization during the COVID event, and updated such guidance on June 26, 2020 and on December 31, 2020 to run through July 1, 2021; on February 10, 2021, Wyoming enacted SF0029 which adopted RULONA in the state, including provisions on RON, remote ink notarization (RIN) and in-person electronic notarization (IPEN), and became effective July 1, 2021 [updated April 26, 2021].
Moreover, Fannie Mae has issued updated guidance to lenders on addressing mortgage origination issues during the COVID-19 event, including authorizing lenders to sell loans with remotely notarized loan documents in certain designates states and under specified conditions. Fannie Mae also issued on April 14, 2020 guidance on “Remote-ink notarizations” authorized by emergency order and updated such guidance for loans issued on or after July 1, 2021 [updated June 10, 2021], and on July 1, 2020 issued a COVID-19 FAQ providing updated information on states enacting remote online notarization or other remote notarization implementations during the COVID-19 pandemic [updated July 24, 2020].
Freddie Mac issued its own guidance to sellers on the impact of COVID-19 on borrowers and the mortgage origination process which includes guidance related to acceptable uses of remote online notarizations, and has issued a COVID-19 FAQ. On August 27, 2020 Freddie Mac updated its guidance to modify the requirements for maintenance of the RON recording to the longer of 10 years or the time period specified in the RON laws of the state of the notary’s commission [updated September 5, 2020]. Freddie Mac also issued guidance on remote ink notarizations which mirrors the Fannie Mae guidance, except it adds a requirement for multi-factor authentication. [updated June 10, 2021].
All of the above guidance has been regularly updated by Fannie and Freddie at the above-provided hyperlinks [updated November 5, 2020].
Additionally, on April 21, 2020, MISMO, a mortgage industry standards organization, announced a new remote online notarization certification program for RON providers and mortgage industry participants. The cost to obtain certification is $5,000 [updated April 28, 2020]. MISMO also developed and released Remote Online Notarization standards to promote consistency across mortgage industry practices [updated July 24, 2020]. The MISMO RON standards support model legislation developed by the Mortgage Bankers Association (MBA) and the American Land Title Association (ALTA) [updated November 5, 2020].
Further, Fidelity National Title Insurance Company, Chicago Title Insurance Company, Alamo Title Insurance, National Title Insurance of New York and Commonwealth Land Title Insurance Company released a bulletin on March 18, 2020 titled “Emergency Exemptions to Remote Online Notarization Procedures” that allows RON to be available, provided certain requirements are met, as an option for properties located in all states and the District of Columbia with a proposed policy amount of $1 million or less (and for higher amounts on a case-by-case basis). This emergency exemption was available through April 30, 2020.
Additionally, on March 27, 2020, the Veterans Benefits Administration issued Circular 26-20-10 (updated on April 27, 2020 by change 1 [updated July 24, 2020]), making VA loans for which electronic notarization was used as a part of an eClosing, including IPEN and RON, eligible for guaranty provided that the notarization is valid and effective under applicable law and regulations.
The Department of Housing and Urban Development has applauded the efforts of the states and other agencies to adopt and implement IPEN and RON during the COVID-19 crisis and, on March 27, 2020 requested the Conference of State Bank Supervisors to “secure additional flexibilities, wherever possible, to facilitate the full functioning of the real estate mortgage market within the confines of the President’s directives to avoid public interactions whenever possible.”
On May 13, 2020, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) published a compliance aid titled “Open-End (not Home-Secured) Rules FAQs related to the COVID-19 Pandemic” that, in part, addresses engaging with consumers electronically during COVID-19. Specifically, the CFPB states that creditors may be able to expedite consumer communication by using electronic means to deliver required disclosures so long as the creditor complies with ESIGN’s consumer consent provisions. The CFPB notes that ESIGN does not allow a consumer to provide oral consent, but that “creditors could obtain a consumer’s email address over the phone and contact the consumer through the provided email address to obtain consent by, for example, providing a hyperlink through which a consumer might agree to electronic disclosure.”
Other notarial acts are also being made available on a remote basis using audio-visual communication technology, such as the swearing-in of witnesses (see Supreme Court of Florida Administrative Order No. AOSC20-16), and the general conduct of court proceedings (see Pennsylvania Supreme Court Order dated March 16, 2020).