Offer and sale of franchises

Legal definition

What is the legal definition of a franchise?

While federal and state jurisdictions share common definitional approaches, there is no universal definition of a franchise. Moreover, each jurisdiction has its own mix of definitional exclusions and exemptions.

Generally, a franchise is defined by the coexistence of three elements:

  • a grant of rights to use another’s trademark to offer, sell, or distribute goods or services;
  • the grantor (or franchisor) providing significant assistance to, or exercising control over, the grantee’s (franchisee’s) business, which may take the form of a prescribed marketing plan; and
  • the payment of a required fee.


If these three elements exist, the business arrangement is a franchise and the franchisor must comply with the applicable laws.

Laws and agencies

What laws and government agencies regulate the offer and sale of franchises?

At the federal level, franchising is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) primarily through the FTC’s Franchise Rule (the FTC Rule). The FTC also has a Business Opportunity Rule that can apply to franchises.

At state level, 14 states have laws that regulate pre-offer and pre-sale disclosures and require franchise registration. These states are California, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin. Oregon has a franchise-specific law that does not require documentation to be filed with the government. In addition, 25 states have business laws that apply to business opportunities or seller-assisted marketing plans. Most of these contain exemptions for franchisors that meet certain criteria. However, of those states, six impose pre-offer and pre-sale documentation filing requirements on franchisors. These states are Connecticut, Florida, Kentucky, Nebraska, Texas and Utah. Also, 25 states and territories have laws that regulate the terms of the franchisor–franchisee relationship (after the grant or sale of a franchise). These states are: Alaska, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin, as well as Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. State relationship laws typically pertain to franchise terminations, renewals and transfers.

There are many exclusions and exemptions from both the FTC Rule and state laws, which are nuanced. There is no nationwide exemption from franchise laws.

Finally, the North American Association of Securities Administrators has guidance documents concerning franchise disclosures, which are deferred to by state regulators.

Principal requirements

What are the principal requirements governing the offer and sale of franchises under the relevant laws?

The federal and state franchise laws and regulations are varied and include the following principal requirements:

  • federal-level pre-sale franchise disclosure requirements;
  • state-level pre-sale franchise registration and disclosure requirements; and
  • state-level franchise relationship laws that govern the ongoing relationships between franchisors and franchisees, as well as between manufacturers and dealers or distributors, which impose requirements on terminations, renewals and transfers of franchises.


The federal and state laws regulating the offer and sale of business opportunities or seller-assisted marketing plans may also impose filing or disclosure requirements, or both.

Franchisor eligibility

Must franchisors satisfy any eligibility requirements in order to offer franchises? Are there any related practical issues or guidelines that franchisors should consider before offering franchises?

Neither federal nor state laws impose experience or similar threshold requirements as a prerequisite to offering franchises. However, some of the registration states may require inexperienced franchisors to defer their collection of initial franchise fees until the franchisor has completed its initial obligations and the franchisee has opened for business. Fee deferral may also be required based on a state’s analysis of a franchisor’s financial condition. Of course, a franchisor must comply with any applicable registration and disclosure requirements before offering franchises.

Franchisee and supplier selection

Are there any legal restrictions or requirements relating to the manner in which a franchisor recruits franchisees or selects its or its franchisees’ suppliers? What practical considerations are relevant when selecting franchisees and suppliers?

No. The franchisor is generally free to contract with suppliers and franchisees of its choosing.

Pre-contractual disclosure – procedures and formalities

What procedures and formalities for pre-contractual disclosure are required or advised in your jurisdiction? How often must the disclosures be updated?

At the federal level, the FTC Rule requires that franchisors who offer franchises anywhere in the United States must prepare a franchise disclosure document (FDD) and provide the FDD to prospective franchisees at least 14 days before signing a franchise agreement or accepting any consideration for the right to enter into a franchise relationship. The FDD must include 23 disclosure items and certain required appendices. Disclosures must be updated annually 120 days after the franchisor’s fiscal year end and within a reasonable time after the close of each quarter to reflect material changes.

Fourteen states have pre-sale franchise disclosure and registration laws, though the disclosure period varies slightly by state. In these jurisdictions, a franchisor may not offer franchises in the state or to that state’s residents unless the franchise offering is registered with the state. State laws require that FDDs must be updated at least annually or upon the occurrence of a material change, though what constitutes a material change and the exact timing of the required update varies by state.

Pre-sale disclosure to sub-franchisees

In the case of a sub-franchising structure, who must make pre-sale disclosures to sub-franchisees? If the sub-franchisor must provide disclosure, what must be disclosed concerning the franchisor and the contractual or other relationship between the franchisor and the sub-franchisor?

Both the franchisor and sub-franchisor are jointly liable for compliance with disclosure laws. A sub-franchisor must provide an FDD to prospective franchisees. Certain aspects of the sub-franchisor’s relationship with the franchisor must be disclosed in the sub-franchisor’s FDD, such as the parties’ trademark licensing arrangement. However, the parties’ fee arrangement need not be disclosed. Additional disclosures pertaining to the franchisor must be disclosed in the sub-franchisor’s FDD, including litigation and bankruptcy information about the franchisor.

Due diligence

What due diligence should both the franchisor and the franchisee undertake before entering a franchise relationship?

Prospective franchisees should review the FDD, franchise agreement and related documents detailing the terms of the franchise relationship to understand the costs involved, the control exercised by the franchisor and the support services offered. Prospective franchisees should also speak to as many of the franchisor’s current and former franchisees as possible. Prospective franchisees should also evaluate competing brands. Prospective franchisees should consider engaging financial and legal advisers, as well as industry-specific trade associations, to help assess the franchise opportunity.

Franchisors should establish criteria to assess each prospective franchisee, which should include:

  • whether the franchisee is a good fit for the system;
  • whether the franchisee has the appropriate experience (such as in business, management and human resources);
  • whether the prospect meets minimum capital requirements;
  • the availability of territory in the franchisee’s ideal market; and
  • whether it makes sense for the franchisor to expand into that region.


Failure to disclose – enforcement and remedies

What actions may franchisees or any relevant government agencies take in response to a franchisor’s failure to make required disclosures? What legal remedies are available? What penalties may apply?

The FTC may initiate an investigation or enforcement action against a franchisor for violation of the FTC Rule. This action can result in a court order that imposes penalties, such as recission of agreements or payment of fines, and enjoins the franchisor from continuing the violation. There is no private right of action available to franchisees under the FTC Rule. Only the FTC may pursue a violation of the FTC Rule.

States may also initiate an investigation or enforcement action against a franchisor for violation of a state registration or disclosure law (including business opportunity laws). States also routinely impose cease-and-desist orders, and require recission of agreements and payment of fines. Some state laws also provide for criminal liability for violations of state franchise laws.

FTC and state enforcement actions must usually be disclosed in a franchisor’s FDD.

General legal principles and codes of conduct

In addition to any laws or government agencies that specifically regulate offering and selling franchises, what general principles of law affect the offer and sale of franchises? What industry codes of conduct may affect the offer and sale of franchises?

There are several general principles that apply to most contracts, such as common law concepts of fraud and misrepresentation.

Fraudulent sale

What actions may franchisees take if a franchisor engages in fraudulent or deceptive practices in connection with the offer and sale of franchises?

In registration states, if a franchisor fails to provide proper disclosure or appropriately register, the franchisee may bring a claim under the applicable state law. Remedies available under state franchise laws may include rescission of the franchise agreement and damages. Similar relief is available for violations of business opportunity laws.

In addition, while there is no private right of action available to franchisees under the FTC Rule, states have passed unfair and deceptive trade practices acts, which are sometimes called Little FTC Acts. Many of these Little FTC Acts make violation of the FTC Rule a per se violation of the state’s Little FTC Act. Aggrieved franchisees may also bring claims under these little FTC Acts. Common remedies also include recission and damages, including punitive damages.