The European Commission has closed its competition proceedings against Vodafone UK, O2 UK, Vodafone Germany and T-Mobile Germany regarding the roaming tariffs applied to other European mobile network operators up to 2003. The Commission initiated formal infringement proceedings against these operators in July 2004 and February 2005. The Commission was concerned that their wholesale roaming tariffs charged to other European mobile network operators between 1997 and 2003 were excessive and constituted an abuse of a dominant position. The Commission decided to close the cases following the adoption of the European Roaming Regulation which, according to the Commission, addresses and resolves the same issues as the antitrust cases.