In May 2016, EPA finalized updates to its New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for the oil and gas industry which amended 40 CFR Part 60, Subpart OOOO and added new requirements (Subpart OOOOa) to those established for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) established for this industry sector in 2012. Importantly, the new requirements address reductions of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions, specifically methane. In its Executive Summary, EPA discussed the efforts by the agency to “complement” and “improve” the existing rules issued in 2012, stressing the agency’s efforts to engage states and stakeholders and solicit comments prior to its 2015 proposal or the rule. EPA also stressed it worked closely with the Bureau of Land Management to avoid conflicts and evaluated existing state and local programs to attempt to limit conflicts, where possible.
After promulgation of both the 2012 rule and 2013 amendments, the agency received petitions for reconsideration raising numerous issues, including the regulation of GHGs. EPA has addressed some of petitioners’ issues in 2015 amendments addressing storage vessels as well as in this rule, adding standards for methane and addressing storage vessel control device monitoring and testing; initial compliance requirements for bypass devices that divert emissions from control devices; recordkeeping requirements for repair logs for control devices which fail a visible emissions test, clarification of the due date for the initial annual report; emergency flare exemptions from routine compliance tests; leak detection and reporting for open-ended valves or lines; compliance period for leak detection and repair (LDAR) for newly affected process units; exemption to notification requirement for reconstruction of most types of facilities; and disposal of carbon from control devices. However, in a footnote, EPA makes clear it intends to complete its reconsideration process in a subsequent notice.
One interesting aspect of the 2016 rule publication is the extensive discussion of how the 1979 source category listing, “crude oil and natural gas production” is defined. The agency takes great pains to justify its broad authority over the industry to include not only production, but also processing, transmission and storage equipment. The EPA concludes that its category listing need not be revised to support the additions and amendments of this rule (even though it does clarify some wording), and sets out its justification for including the entire sector in its 2009 endangerment finding relating to GHGs.
EPA concluded that the Best System for Emissions Reduction (BSER) is the same for GHGs as it is for VOCs, so there are no changes required for equipment that was covered by the 2012 rule. Newly regulated sources covered by the 2016 rule include: heretofore unregulated hydraulically fractured oil well completions, pneumatic pumps, fugitive emissions from well sites and compressor stations; sources regulated under the 2012 regulation for VOCs for which GHGs are now also regulated (hydraulically fractured gas well completions and equipment leaks at natural gas processing plants); and certain equipment that is used across the source category for which subpart OOOO regulates emissions of VOCs from only a subset (pneumatic controllers, centrifugal compressors and reciprocating compressors), with the exception of compressors located at well sites.
In addition to emission reductions, LDAR utilizing optical gas imaging semi-annually is required for well sites and compressor stations. (Method 21 at a repair threshold of 500 ppm may be used.) Initial monitoring surveys must take place by June 3, 2017 or within 60 days of the startup of production, whichever is later. Repairs must be made within 30 days and a resurvey is required within 30 days of repair. Also, a monitoring plan that covers collection of fugitive emissions components is required to be developed and implemented for well sites and compressor stations. At natural gas processing plants, equipment leaks of methane (GHGs) are subject to the same requirements as those for VOCs. The compliance period begins on November 30, 2016.
And, the rule embraces “next generation” electronic reporting via EPA’s CDX, for enhanced accessibility and transparency to the public, as soon as the forms and systems are available. Professional engineers are required to provide certifications of technical infeasibility of connecting a pneumatic pump to an existing control device and to design closed vent systems.
Finally, there is a complicated discussion of EPA’s interpretation of UARG v. EPA, which merely results in EPA concluding that the rule should not affect applicability of Title V permit or PSD/NSR applicability determinations for “anyway” sources, even though, if not otherwise required to obtain and comply with a Title V permit, emissions of GHGs (methane) alone will not subject a source to Title V permit requirements.