On July 5, lawyers for EU member states and the bloc's institutions told the Court of Justice of the European Union that the inclusion of U.S. airlines in the European Union's Emissions Trading System (ETS) is legal. The Transport Association of America, American Airlines, Continental Airlines, and United Airlines brought the suit arguing that they should be exempted from an EU law requiring all aviation operators arriving in, or departing from, the EU to participate in the ETS starting in January 2012. By October 6, the court will publish a preliminary opinion on the case, with the final judgment likely coming in spring or summer 2012. This is a significant test for the ETS and the European Union's ability to extend climate change laws beyond its borders, treating non-EU competitors the same as EU companies.