Two former Barclays bank traders – Stylianos Contogoulas and Ryan Michael Reich – were acquitted by a UK jury of criminal charges related to an investigation by the Serious Fraud Office into the manipulation of LIBOR benchmark interest rates by the bank from 2005 to early 2009. Barclays previously agreed to pay fines totaling US $360 million to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and the US Department of Justice, and GBP 59.5 million (approximately US $73 million) to the UK Financial Services Authority (predecessor to the Financial Conduct Authority). SFO has brought criminal cases against 19 individuals for their roles in the manipulation of LIBOR and EURIBOR. To date, one has pleaded guilty, four were convicted and eight were acquitted.