The Bureau of National Affairs has reported that, during the first half of 2008, unions and management negotiated a nationwide average increase for all unionized workers of 3.5% in the first year of union contracts. The nationwide average negotiated during the first half of 2007 was 3.6%. The average increase negotiated in the manufacturing sector was 2.1%, although the median was 3.0%. In the construction industry, the average negotiated increase was 4.7%. These percentages increases are without factoring in lump sum payments, which are, at times, given to employees either with or without a percentage increase. With lump sum payments factored into the equation, the nationwide average was 3.8% for all workers, 3.4% for the manufacturing sector and 4.7% in the construction sector.