All questions


For many years, the Netherlands has been considered the gateway to Europe for non-European companies and investors. The certainty provided by advance tax rulings (ATRs) and advance pricing agreements (APAs), the country's extensive participation exemption regime, the excellent Dutch network of tax treaties and bilateral investment treaties, flexible corporate law, and the country's business-friendly infrastructure are all key elements in this respect.

Common forms of business organisation and their tax treatment

i Corporate

Dutch (holding) companies are generally organised as limited liability companies or as cooperatives.

Limited liability companies

Limited liability companies come in two forms: private limited liability companies (BVs) and public limited liability companies (NVs).

Both types of companies have legal personality and capital that is divided into shares. As the NV and BV both have limited liability, their shareholders are not liable for the company's debts. While NVs are typically used for companies going public (i.e., listed on a stock exchange), BVs are generally used for smaller businesses, or as a holding or finance vehicle.

NVs and BVs in principle pay Dutch corporate income tax (CIT) on their worldwide profits, with a branch exemption and participation exemption regime to eliminate international double taxation. Both types of companies are considered to be Dutch tax residents by virtue of being incorporated under Dutch law. Dividend distributions by NVs and BVs are subject to Dutch dividend withholding tax, with reductions and exemptions pursuant to domestic law and the application of a tax treaty.


The Dutch cooperative is a special form of association. By and large, the general Dutch CIT rules governing associations also apply to cooperatives. However, in addition to these general rules, certain specific rules apply to cooperatives only. Like all associations under Dutch law, a cooperative must have a board of directors and members and, if the articles of association allow, a supervisory board. Moreover, the cooperative regime is quite flexible: no minimum capital requirements apply, only two members (at least) are required and dividends may be distributed freely.

In accordance with Dutch law, a cooperative's objective (as formalised in its articles of association) must state that it provides for specific material needs of its members pursuant to agreements that are not insurance contracts and that have been concluded with those members as part of the cooperative's business or causes that benefit the members.

Cooperatives of which the main (≥70 per cent) activities consist of holding participations or intercompany financing are, in principle, subject to Dutch dividend withholding tax.

ii Non-corporate

Pursuant to Dutch law, partnerships are formed by means of a partnership agreement that governs the long-term cooperation between two or more partners. A partnership is not a separate legal entity; however, Dutch partnerships can sue and be sued, and can enter into contracts in their own name.

Dutch partnerships come in the form of a general partnership (VOF), a limited partnership (CV) or a professional partnership. The most important differences between these forms are expressed in how they interact with third parties, including representation, liability and the right of recourse. Whereas general and limited partnerships are considered to be subcategories of professional partnerships, the statutory provisions for a professional partnership essentially apply by analogy to general and limited partnerships. An important consideration is that the liability of general partners in a VOF and general partners in a CV is unlimited, while the liability of limited partners in a CV is limited to the amount of their respective capital contributions.

Dutch domestic tax rules distinguish between 'closed' and 'open' CVs. An open CV is regarded as non-transparent (opaque) for the limited partner interest, and is, therefore, (partly) a taxpayer for Dutch tax purposes; conversely, closed partnerships are transparent. A look-through approach applies to these closed CVs, meaning that only the partners in the CV may be subject to tax. The 'consent requirement' is a crucial factor in determining whether a CV is regarded as an open or closed partnership. A CV qualifies as open if limited partners can join and exit the partnership – except by bequest or inheritance – without unanimous consent from all other partners (i.e., both general and limited partners). The Dutch government is currently considering changing the Dutch domestic tax rules that distinguish between closed and open CVs by abolishing the open CV. This would, at the earliest, happen as of 1 January 2023.

Direct taxation of businesses

i Tax on profits

Dutch CIT is levied on Dutch and non-Dutch tax residents. Dutch tax residents are in principle subject to Dutch CIT on their worldwide income. Non-residents are subject to CIT only insofar as they enjoy Dutch-source income, which falls into two categories:

  1. taxable profits derived from a business that is conducted through a permanent establishment (PE) or a permanent representative in the Netherlands (see Section IV.ii); or
  2. taxable income derived from a substantial interest in a company that is a resident of the Netherlands, provided that:
    • the main purpose (or one of the main purposes) for holding the interest is to avoid Dutch personal income tax in the hands of another person (subjective test); and
    • an arrangement (or a series of arrangements) is in place that is not genuine (objective test).

For the purposes of condition (b), an arrangement or a series of arrangements is considered not genuine if and to the extent that it is not based on valid commercial reasons that reflect the economic reality.

Whether an arrangement has been put into place for valid commercial reasons may depend on the substance at shareholder level. Valid commercial reasons may be present if, inter alia, the shareholder conducts a material business enterprise and the shareholding is part of the business enterprise's assets; the shareholder is a top holding company that performs material management, policy and financial functions for the group; or the shareholder functions as an intermediate holding company within the group structure.

Under the substance rules as amended as of 1 January 2020, if an intermediate holding company satisfies the Dutch minimum substance requirements, the wage sum criterion (generally a wage sum of €100,000) and the office space criterion (office space for at least 24 months), the burden of proof with respect to purpose for holding the interest and the absence of valid commercial reasons that reflect the economic reality shifts to the tax inspector. If the aforementioned substance requirements are not met, the taxpayer has to prove that the interest is not held with the main purpose (or one of the main purposes) to avoid Dutch personal income tax in the hands of another person or that the structure is based on valid commercial reasons that reflect the economic reality.

Determination of taxable profit

Dutch CIT is levied on a taxpayer's taxable profit, being the net income earned and capital gains less deductible losses, as determined annually in accordance with the principles of sound business practice. Under this general principle, which has been widely developed under Dutch case law, profits and losses are attributed to the years based on principles of realisation, matching, reality, prudence and simplicity. In principle, all business expenses may be deducted from the taxable profit, including interest on loans (subject to interest deduction limitation rules), and annual amortisation and depreciation on assets used for the taxpayer's business.


In general, tax losses can be carried back to be offset against the previous year's taxable profits and can be carried forward for six years for losses made in fiscal years starting on or after 1 January 2019. Loss carry-backs and carry-forwards are applied in the order in which the losses arose (meaning that a loss will first be offset against the previous year's profits, and then against future profits). These rules will change in 2022, with the carry-forward period being extended (from six years to indefinite), but the amount of loss that can be set off against taxable profits decreased to 50 per cent of the taxable profits in excess of €1 million. The first €1 million of taxable profits can be fully set off with losses.

Special rules for loss relief may apply to the trade in 'loss-making companies'. A company's losses may not be offset against future profits if 30 per cent or more of the ultimate interest in that company changes among the ultimate beneficial owners or is transferred to a new shareholder. This rule offers a number of exceptions, however (the going-concern exception, for example).

In view of the Dutch participation exemption regime (see Section V.i), taxpayers may not deduct losses on the disposal of a qualifying participation from their taxable profit. In addition, a write-off of the cost price of a participation is not deductible. However, liquidation losses, whether foreign or domestic, may be deducted from the taxable profits, provided that certain requirements are met. The liquidation loss amount is determined on the basis of the difference between the liquidation proceeds and the cost price of the participation. As of 2021, the liquidation and discontinuation loss regimes have a more limited scope (i.e., certain geographical, substantive and temporal restrictions).


The standard CIT rate is 25 per cent (expected to become 25.8 per cent in 2022). The first €245,000 of annual taxable profit is taxed at a step-up rate of 15 per cent. The threshold for the lower bracket CIT rate will be increased to €395,000 in 2022.


Taxpayers must file annual CIT returns with the Dutch tax authorities within five months of the end of their financial year. It is possible to apply for an extension of this filing deadline.

Dutch taxpayers are allowed to file their returns in a functional currency (i.e., a foreign currency other than the euro) if their annual reports are drawn up in the same foreign currency. As such, a Dutch taxpayer can ensure that fluctuations between the euro and the functional currency do not lead to taxable profits (e.g., foreign exchange results on outstanding debt or receivables).

Tax grouping

The Dutch consolidation regime (fiscal unity) offers the possibility for taxpayers to opt for treatment as a single taxable entity for Dutch CIT purposes. A Dutch resident parent company and its Dutch resident subsidiaries may form a fiscal unity if certain requirements are satisfied, the most important being that the parent company, directly or indirectly through other fiscal unity members must hold at least 95 per cent of the legal and economic title to the shares issued by the subsidiaries. As a result, the assets and liabilities of the entities included in the fiscal unity are consolidated, meaning that intercompany transactions are eliminated, and that the business income of the fiscal unity members is balanced for CIT calculation purposes. Although each member of the fiscal unity remains jointly and individually liable for the CIT due by the entire fiscal unity, the CIT assessments are only imposed on the parent company. A fiscal unity (for Dutch CIT purposes) is optional (i.e., it is not formed by operation of law) and therefore requires a prior request to that effect.

Following the judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in X BV of 25 October 2017, in which the CJEU declared that the Dutch fiscal unity regime (partially) breaches the freedom of establishment, emergency reparatory legislation to bring the fiscal unity regime in line with the EU freedom of establishment was adopted. The emergency reparatory legislation proposal has retroactive effect up to 1 January 2018. The legislation decreases the scope of the consolidation of the Dutch fiscal unity regime for a number of Dutch CIT rules that affect non-Dutch resident companies (which could not be included in the Dutch fiscal unity because of not being a Dutch tax resident), where these rules would not affect Dutch resident companies that are a part of a Dutch fiscal unity.

Given the foregoing, the Dutch fiscal unity regime is currently under review and may be replaced by a group relief or group contribution regime. The Dutch government is currently still reviewing the options with respect to the future of the Dutch fiscal unity regime.

ii Other relevant taxesValue added tax

Value added tax (VAT) is charged on supplies of goods and services in the Netherlands and is based on the various EU VAT Directives. The standard VAT rate is 21 per cent. A reduced rate of 9 per cent is charged on designated supplies, while a zero per cent rate applies to supplies related to international trade. In addition, various VAT exemptions exist in the Netherlands, pursuant to which no VAT is charged (although it is important to bear in mind that in some cases the corresponding input VAT cannot be deducted).

The Dutch VAT Act provides for a deferment system for VAT, under which taxpayers must declare import VAT in their periodic tax returns but simultaneously deduct it, meaning that on balance no VAT is actually paid.

Excise and import duties

Excise duties, being a consumption tax, are levied on alcoholic products, tobacco and mineral oil products. Import (or customs) duties are levied on various products that are imported into the Netherlands from outside the European Union. The Netherlands does not impose export duties.

Real estate transfer tax

The acquisition of the legal or economic ownership of real estate (or rights relating thereto) located in the Netherlands is subject to real estate transfer tax (RETT) at a rate of 8 per cent. Various exemptions may apply in situations involving mergers or reorganisations.

Moreover, the acquisition of shares in a real estate company, being a company where real estate assets make up more than 50 per cent of the assets, of which at least 30 per cent consists of real estate located in the Netherlands, is also subject to Dutch RETT.

Wage tax and social security contributions

In principle, individuals in employment are subject to wage tax, which the employer withholds from their wages and remits to the tax authorities. This applies not only to wage tax on salary payments, but also to social security contributions. Dutch wage tax is considered to be an advance levy, meaning that individuals may credit it against their Dutch personal income tax due.

Highly skilled expatriates may claim a special tax facility, known as the '30 per cent ruling'. The 30 per cent ruling is a tax-free reimbursement of 30 per cent of an employee's (gross) salary, which may be applied if the employee has been recruited or assigned from abroad and has specific expertise that is difficult to find in the Dutch labour market.


The Netherlands does not levy any stamp or capital duties.

Tax residence and fiscal domicile

i Corporate residence

Pursuant to Dutch tax law, the place of residence of a corporate entity is determined on the basis of all relevant facts and circumstances, in particular taking into account the place of effective management.

However, the Corporate Income Tax Act, 1969 (CITA) provides an important exception to this principle by applying the 'incorporation fiction'. Pursuant to this fiction, entities such as NVs and BVs are deemed to be tax residents of the Netherlands by virtue of being incorporated under Dutch law. Accordingly, an entity incorporated under Dutch law is in principle fully liable to Dutch CIT regardless of its taxable place of residency, except limited by a bilateral tax treaty.

ii Branch or permanent establishment

Taxable profits from a business that is conducted through a PE or a permanent representative (referred to as a 'Dutch business') in the Netherlands are in principle subject to Dutch CIT.

As of 1 January 2020, Dutch domestic law refers to the relevant tax treaty for the definition of a PE, the CITA explicitly states that a Dutch business is deemed to include:

  1. income and gains derived from real estate located in the Netherlands, including direct and indirect rights in Dutch real estate, and rights to explore and commercially operate Dutch natural resources;
  2. profit-sharing rights in, or entitlements to, the net value of a business that is effectively managed in the Netherlands, except insofar as those rights or entitlements are not derived from securities;
  3. receivables on companies that are residents of the Netherlands, provided that the lender holds a substantial interest in the company concerned; and
  4. activities performed by a member of the management or supervisory board of an entity that is a resident of the Netherlands, even if the authority is restricted to those parts of the business that are located outside the Netherlands.

In determining the profits attributable to a PE, the Netherlands follows the authorised Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) approach, which was largely incorporated into the Dutch PE profit allocation decree of 2011.

Tax incentives, special regimes and relief that may encourage inward investment

i Holding company regimesParticipation exemption regime

Under the Dutch participation exemption regime, all benefits (i.e., dividends and capital gains) derived by a Dutch company from a qualifying participation in another entity are exempt from Dutch CIT.

The Dutch participation exemption generally applies if the following conditions are both met: the Dutch company holds 5 per cent or more of the nominal paid-up share capital of a company, which is divided into shares (the '5 per cent ownership condition'); and the entity in which the Dutch company participates is not held as a portfolio investment (the 'motive test' or 'non-portfolio investment condition').

The non-portfolio investment condition means that the participation exemption does not extend to subsidiaries that are held as portfolio investments (the 'motive test'). A subsidiary is considered to be held as a portfolio investment if the Dutch resident (shareholder) company's only object is to obtain returns that may be expected from normal active asset management. If the taxpayer has a mixed motive, the predominant motive is decisive. According to parliamentary proceedings, a subsidiary that is engaged in a business and that is owned by an intermediate Dutch holding company linking the subsidiary's activities and those of the larger group is not considered to be a portfolio investment. However, the motive test is deemed not to be met if more than 50 per cent of the subsidiary's consolidated assets consist of a shareholding (or shareholdings) of less than 5 per cent or the subsidiary's predominant function – together with the functions of its lower-tier subsidiaries – is to act as a passive group finance, licensing or leasing company.

ii IP regimes

The Netherlands offers a favourable tax regime for profits from qualifying IP developed by a Dutch taxpayer. Under this 'innovation box' regime, profits from the R&D of qualifying assets are taxed at a lower CIT rate of 9 per cent (instead of 25 per cent) to the extent that the R&D profits exceed a threshold equal to the sum of the costs incurred to develop the IP.

Since 1 January 2017, the Dutch innovation box regime is aligned with the OECD's base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) Action 5 (countering harmful tax practices more effectively, taking into account transparency and substance). Pursuant to Action 5, states are required to modify their IP regimes in terms of accessibility and their economic substance. Consequently, the Netherlands incorporated the 'modified nexus' approach into the CITA, pursuant to which only intangible assets developed by the taxpayer itself will qualify for the application of the amended innovation box regime. A nexus formula will determine what portion of the R&D income will qualify for the innovation box regime.

In addition, the Netherlands offers an R&D wage tax credit, which, in fact, functions as an entry ticket to the innovation box regime.

iii State aid

Following the publication of the non-confidential version of the decision in the Starbucks case on 27 June 2016 by the European Commission in which it held that an APA between the state and Starbucks Manufacturing BV (SMBV) constituted illegal state aid, the General Court ruled that the Netherlands has not granted fiscal state aid to Starbucks on 24 September 2019.

The General Court ruled that the European Commission has not been able to establish that the APA concluded between the state and SMBV conferred an advantage to SMBV.

If the European Commission appeals the General Court decision, the decision may be overturned by the CJEU.

On 18 December 2017, the European Commission announced it had opened an in-depth investigation into the Netherlands' tax treatment of Inter IKEA. The case revolves around two APAs concluded between Inter IKEA Systems and the Dutch tax authorities.

Withholding and taxation of non-local source income streams

i Withholding on outward-bound payments (domestic law)

Dividend withholding tax is levied at a rate of 15 per cent from those persons – whether resident or non-resident – who are entitled (either directly or through depositary receipts) to proceeds from shares or profit-sharing certificates in a Dutch resident entity. The actual amount of dividend withholding tax due is calculated on the basis of the proceeds of such shares or profit-sharing certificates.

Cooperatives are subject to dividend withholding tax if they can be classified as a 'holding cooperative'. This is the case in all situations where the activities of the cooperative consist, in short, subject to all relevant facts and circumstances, of more than 70 per cent of holding and finance activities. Only less than 5 per cent membership rights continue to benefit from an unconditional exemption from dividend withholding tax.

The Netherlands does not impose any withholding tax on (outgoing) interest or royalty payments, except for interest on certain hybrid loans. As of 1 January 2021, the Netherlands imposes a (conditional) withholding tax on interest and royalty payments. The withholding tax only applies to interest and royalty payments made to 'low-tax jurisdictions'. The Dutch list of low-tax jurisdictions is published in December of the year preceding the year of application of the list. The list for 2021 contains the following jurisdictions: American Samoa, American Virgin Islands, Anguilla, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Fiji, Guam, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Oman, Palau, Panama, Samoa, Seychelles, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkmenistan, Turks and Caicos Islands, United Arab Emirates and Vanuatu. The list for 2022 is yet to be published.

ii Domestic law exclusions or exemptions from withholding on outward-bound payments

Dutch tax law provides for various statutory exemptions from dividend withholding tax on dividend distributions, such as the Dutch participation exemption regime (see Section V.i) and the fiscal unity regime (see Section III.i).

Generally, Dutch dividend withholding tax is an advance levy that may be credited against the Dutch CIT due to the level of the shareholder. In addition, several special tax regimes are adopted into the Dutch Dividend Withholding Tax Act pursuant to which no (owing to an exemption) or less (owing to a refund or reduction) Dutch dividend withholding tax is levied.

For example, an exemption may apply if the beneficiary of the dividends is an EU resident and its shareholding in the distributing company would have qualified as a participation under the Dutch participation regime if it had been a Dutch-resident company. Under certain conditions, it is also possible for non-European companies with investments in Dutch companies, such as pension funds, to claim back the tax withheld.

As of 1 January 2018, the Netherlands unilaterally applies a zero per cent rate for all distributions to qualifying (>5 per cent) corporate shareholders in the European Union or European Economic Area (EEA) and entities that are tax resident in a country that has concluded with the Netherlands a double taxation treaty with a dividend clause (irrespective of whether the treaty itself provides for a zero per cent rate). An anti-abuse rule also applies, denying the exemption if the shareholding is both held with the principal purpose, or one of the principal purposes, of avoiding the levy of dividend withholding tax and the shareholding is part of an artificial (non-genuine) structure or transaction or series of transactions. As of 1 January 2020, the division of the burden of proof with respect to the anti-abuse rule is similar to the division of the burden of proof as described in the non-resident taxpayer rule described in Section III.i.

iii Double tax treaties

The Netherlands has one of the most extensive treaty networks in the world (currently standing at almost 100 bilateral tax treaties), providing for, inter alia, beneficial allocation of the taxing rights on capital gains and reduced withholding tax rates.

Moreover, the tax treaties concluded by the Netherlands typically protect against discriminatory taxation by any state other than the resident state of the taxpayer. Most bilateral tax treaties concluded by the Netherlands provide for a reduction of dividend withholding tax (down to 5 or even zero per cent).

As an OECD Member State, the Netherlands has ratified the Multilateral Convention to Implement Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS (MLI). As of 1 January 2020, most of the Dutch bilateral treaties have been changed by the MLI (subject to reciprocity) to include the (mostly anti-abuse) measures introduced by the MLI. The Netherlands endorsed many MLI features, including mandatory and binding arbitration if the contracting jurisdictions do not reach a mutual agreement. The main anti treaty-abuse rule elected by the Netherlands is the principal purposes test.

iv Taxation on receipt

Dividends, interest and royalties received by resident companies are generally included in the taxpayer's tax base with the exception of dividend distributions that qualify under the participation exemption regime (see Section V.i).

Moreover, given the extensive tax treaty network, Dutch-resident companies can generally avoid double taxation on foreign-sourced income by claiming relief in respect of incoming dividends, interest and royalties. If no tax treaty is available, relief from double taxation is usually provided under the Dutch unilateral rules for the avoidance of double taxation.

Taxation of funding structures

i Thin capitalisation

The Netherlands does not have debt-to-equity rules or similar anti-interest stripping provisions.

ii Deduction of finance costs

Pursuant to settled case law of the Dutch Supreme Court, the characterisation of a financing arrangement as debt for Dutch tax purposes in principle follows the characterisation of such arrangement for civil law purposes. In this respect, a repayment obligation is considered to be an essential element for the financing arrangement to qualify as debt for civil law purposes. However, there are three exceptions applicable to this general rule, pursuant to which the debt is reclassified as equity for Dutch tax purposes, namely in cases of:

  1. a sham loan (where the parties only created the appearance of a loan, while in fact intending to realise an equity contribution);
  2. a loss financing loan (where it is immediately clear from the terms of the loan that the claim resulting from the loan is (in part) worthless, because the loan cannot be repaid and, as result of which, the funds have permanently left the taxpayer's capital); and
  3. a hybrid financing (or participating) loan (where, based on the terms of the loan, the lender in fact is participating in the borrower's capital). In this scenario, debt is reclassified as equity if:
    • the duration of the loan is perpetual (i.e., more than 50 years), or the loan is repayable only in the event of the debtor's bankruptcy or liquidation;
    • the consideration payable on the debt is entirely or almost entirely contingent on profits; and
    • the loan is subordinate to all other creditors.

As a consequence, interest payments on a reclassified loan qualify as dividend distributions for Dutch tax purposes and are treated accordingly (i.e., subject to Dutch dividend withholding tax and – for qualifying participations – exempt under the participation exemption regime).

If none of these exceptions apply, the arm's-length interest expense should be deductible for Dutch CIT purposes (subject to any interest deduction limitation rules). In this regard, the Dutch Supreme Court has developed the concept of 'non-businesslike loans'. A loan between related parties is considered to be non-businesslike if the loan is granted under terms and conditions that would not have been agreed upon by independent (unrelated) parties in similar circumstances.

However, if it is not possible to determine a businesslike interest (by doing so, the loan in essence would become profit-sharing or deviate from the parties' original intentions), the loan is considered to carry a non-businesslike risk of default. These loans generally lack a loan agreement, a repayment schedule or any security. As a result, write-down losses on these loans are non-deductible. Using the 'suretyship analogy' method, as developed by the Dutch Supreme Court, the interest rate can be determined by considering the rate that a third party (i.e., a bank) would charge if the parent company or, if the parent company is not the lender, the lender put itself forward as guarantor.

A final factor in establishing whether the interest expense on a financing arrangement is deductible for Dutch CIT purposes is the existence of various specific interest deduction limitation rules.

Anti-base erosion

Dutch tax law provides for an anti-abuse provision that specifically targets situations that can be described as 'base erosion'. The common feature of such structures is that (group) equity is converted into debt using transactions that have a somewhat artificial character (and are not based on valid business reasons). Interest on and fluctuations in the value in respect of loans that are legally or de facto, directly or indirectly, owed to related entities, are not deductible to the extent these loans relate legally or de facto effectively, directly or indirectly, to one of the following transactions: (1) distributions of profit or repayments of capital by the taxpayer (or an affiliated entity or individual) to a affiliated entity; (2) capital contributions by the taxpayer (or an affiliated entity or individual) in a affiliated entity; or (3) acquisitions or increases by the taxpayer (or an affiliated entity or individual) of an interest in an entity that becomes an affiliated entity as a result of the acquisition or increase.

However, this anti-abuse provision does not apply if the taxpayer can demonstrate that the debt and tainted transaction are predominantly motivated by business reasons (business motive exception) or the interest is taxed at the level of the recipient at a rate of (at least) 10 per cent (subject-to-tax exception), unless the tax inspector can establish that the debt and tainted transactions are not predominantly motivated by business reasons.

Earnings stripping

Under the earnings stripping rule that the Netherlands had to implement pursuant to the EU Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive (ATAD), net interest expenses is fully deductible up to the higher of 30 per cent (likely to be 20 per cent in 2022) of the earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortisation and €1 million. Any interest that was non-deductible owing to the application of the earnings stripping rule can be carried forward indefinitely.

iii Restrictions on payments

Pursuant to the Dutch Civil Code, a company limited by shares may make distributions to its shareholders and other entitled persons only to the extent its net assets exceed the sum of its called-up and paid-up capital and the reserves as required by law or the company's articles of association.

Moreover, a distribution test applies to BVs pursuant to which the company may only distribute profits to its shareholders (and other entitled parties) to the extent that this does not interfere with the company's ability to pay its exigible and current debt.

iv Return of capital

A repayment of capital has no adverse tax consequences from a Dutch CIT perspective. However, a repayment of capital recognised as paid-up capital for Dutch dividend withholding tax purposes will trigger dividend withholding tax if and to the extent the taxpayer has net profits, unless the general meeting of shareholders has resolved in advance to make the repayment and the articles of association have been amended to reduce the nominal value of the ordinary shares by an equal amount. The capital recognised as paid-up capital for dividend withholding tax purposes may consist of formal capital, informal capital and share premium.

Hence, to repay capital (recognised as paid-up capital for Dutch dividend withholding tax purposes) without triggering Dutch dividend withholding tax, the nominal value of the ordinary shares must first be reduced by amending the articles of association.

Acquisition structures, restructuring and exit charges

i AcquisitionShare deal

A share deal, in which the shares in a Dutch entity are acquired, may be conducted either directly by a foreign entity or indirectly through a Dutch (acquisition) entity. In this respect, cooperatives are frequently used as shareholders for Dutch acquisition entities, given that Dutch cooperatives are in principle not subject to Dutch dividend withholding tax, provided that they comply with the anti-abuse rules (see Section I.i).

If the shares are purchased indirectly (i.e., through a wholly owned Dutch acquisition entity), a fiscal unity may be formed between the acquiring entity and the Dutch target company subject to certain requirements. Accordingly, interest expense on the acquisition debt at the level of the Dutch acquisition entity may be offset against the profits of the target entity (subject to the limitations on interest deduction for acquisition debt: see Section VII.ii).

If the shares are acquired directly (i.e., by a foreign company), the foreign shareholder may become liable to Dutch CIT pursuant to the non-resident taxation rules for foreign substantial shareholders if it does not satisfy the anti-abuse rules (see Section III.i).

Asset deal

An asset deal can be executed either directly by a foreign entity or indirectly through a Dutch entity that acquires the Dutch business or assets. In principle, the gains realised upon the sale of the assets are subject to Dutch CIT. However, provided that certain requirements are met, it is possible to defer the CIT due by applying a 'reinvestment reserve' that provides for a rollover mechanism for Dutch CIT due in respect of the gains realised.

ii Reorganisation

Dutch civil law offers various possibilities for mergers and demergers: a stock merger, business enterprise merger, a legal merger or demerger, and a legal spin-off. The CITA provides for several facilities – subject to certain conditions – by allowing a rollover of book values for the assets and shares transferred. In these cases, the transfer is effected on a non-recognition basis.

iii Exit

Dutch tax residents relocating their businesses to outside the Netherlands are in principle subject to Dutch CIT in respect of their realised and unrealised profits (i.e., hidden reserves and goodwill). Similarly, for entities migrating into the Netherlands, a step-up of all assets and liabilities applies.

If certain conditions are satisfied, the CIT due may be deferred if the taxpayer's new place of residence is an EU or EEA Member State.

Anti-avoidance and other relevant legislation

i General anti-avoidance

In principle, Dutch tax law allows taxpayers to arrange their affairs so as to minimise the amount of tax payable. However, they may not initiate actions intended predominantly to reduce the amount of tax that they would otherwise pay. Although no statutory anti-abuse provisions exist under the CITA, various different doctrines can be seen in Dutch case law, which are sometimes used interchangeably. However, these doctrines are not panaceas, and they may only be applied by the Dutch tax inspector as a final resort.

The doctrine of 'independent determination (or reclassification) of the facts for tax purposes' describes the process in which the court labels a fact or set of facts from a Dutch tax perspective. The court may go beyond the formal paperwork and evaluate the 'substance' of a transaction (e.g., the proper classification of debt versus equity, sale versus lease and compensation versus disguised dividend).

The non-statutory concept of fraus legis (abuse of law) gives the tax authorities the possibility to challenge the validity of a transaction if the decisive motive for entering into the transaction is to avoid taxes (subjective element), and the transaction is in breach of the purpose and intent (objective element). The transaction will then be considered abusive and will be treated differently from its legal form.

ii Controlled foreign corporations

The CITA does not provide for any specific controlled foreign corporations (CFC) rules. However, subsidiaries are subject to an annual mark-to-market requirement if the taxpayer together with its affiliates holds at least 25 per cent of the shares in a subsidiary that is held as a portfolio investment and moreover is subject to a low-tax regime (where the indicative threshold is a rate of 10 per cent), and 90 per cent of the subsidiary's assets (including its lower-tiered subsidiaries) consist of low-taxed passive assets.

If a subsidiary fulfils these criteria, its profits are taxed at the level of the Dutch shareholder. However, a credit system is in place to prevent double taxation on these profits.

As of 1 January 2019, the Netherlands has had in place the EU ATAD 'Model A' CFC rules (which have an income-based approach) for CFCs in low-tax jurisdictions (jurisdictions that are listed on the EU list of non-cooperative jurisdictions or that have a CIT rate of less than 9 per cent). In other situations, the Netherlands takes the position that the Netherlands already has CFC rules in the form of the arm's-length principle (see Section IX.iii).

iii Transfer pricing

The Netherlands has incorporated the arm's-length principle into the CITA. It forms the legal basis for the Dutch tax authorities to adjust intercompany transfer prices in cases where related parties have entered into a transaction for a price or conditions that would not have been agreed upon between independent parties. This provision defines the term 'related parties' and describes the transfer pricing documentation requirements. Moreover, the provision includes specific rules for financial services companies (e.g., substance and real-risk requirements).

Generally, the Netherlands follows the OECD transfer pricing guidelines and has largely incorporated these guidelines into a transfer pricing decree. It has also incorporated the country-by-country reporting rules into the CITA as of 1 January 2016. These rules correspond to OECD BEPS Action 13 (i.e., applying the three-tiered documentation approach using a country-by-country report, master file and local file).

As of 1 January 2022, the Netherlands will likely no longer allow unilateral downward adjustments if the taxpayer cannot show that there was a corresponding upward adjustment. In addition, where a different (lower) value is taken into account for exit tax purposes upon a (for example) capital contribution to the Netherlands, this lower value is the value that will be taken into account for Dutch tax purposes (again, not granting a unilateral downward adjustment).

iv Tax clearances and rulings

The Netherlands is well known for the cooperative and constructive attitude of the tax authorities, and the possibility to discuss the tax treatment of particular operations or transactions in advance (upfront certainty) in an ATR or APA. An ATR provides the taxpayer with certainty regarding the tax treatment of international structures (e.g., the applicability of the Dutch participation exemption). An APA provides upfront certainty in respect of the transfer prices for intra-group transactions.

Both types of 'settlement agreements' are concluded by the Dutch ruling team working in close liaison with the Central Point for Potential Foreign Investors. This department provides foreign investors advance certainty on the tax treatment of their prospective investments in the Netherlands. An ATR or APA is typically valid for four years.

As of July 2019, the Netherlands has renewed its ruling practice. To obtain a ruling, there must be enough substance in the Netherlands at the group level (the 'economic nexus requirement') and the requesting entity must have enough substance for the items to be covered by the ruling. Rulings are not granted if the request covers direct transactions with low-tax jurisdictions (see Section VI.i).

v Anti-hybrid rules

The Netherlands has introduced the anti-hybrid rules prescribed by the EU ATAD, effective as of 1 January 2020. Under the anti-hybrid rules, deduction or non-inclusion and double deduction outcomes resulting from hybrid mismatches (hybrid financial instruments, hybrid entities or hybrid permanent establishments) are neutralised by a denial of deduction or an inclusion of the income. The reverse hybrid taxpayer rule enters into effect on 1 January 2022.

Year in review

The 2022 Dutch tax plan, proposed on Budget Day 2021, did not contain many significant (unexpected) changes to the Tax Code. This is because the government that put forward the 2022 Dutch tax plan is currently defunct and the formation of a new government is still in progress, following parliamentary elections in March 2021.

Outlook and conclusions

Both the OECD and European anti-BEPS projects continue to be key topics in the Netherlands. Because of pressure from the European Union, the Netherlands has taken stricter measures against tax avoidance. However, the Netherlands keeps the business climate in mind when designing the measures against tax avoidance.

Structures, restructuring and exit charges