On 11 June 2013, the European Commission has published five texts aiming at facilitating the introduction of damage claims by victims of anticompetitive practices: a Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of regions called "Towards a European Horizontal Framework for Collective Redress", a Recommendation from the Commission on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Member States concerning violations of rights granted under Union Law, a Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and the Council on certain rules governing actions for damages under national law for infringements of the competition law provisions of the Member States and of the European Union, a Communication from the Commission on quantifying harm in actions for damages based on breaches of Article 101 or 102 of the Treaty on the FTEU, accompanied by a Practical guide on how to quantify harm in actions for damages based on breaches of Article 101 or 102 in order to help the jurisdictions to adequately assess antitrust damages.