Summary

Next week will be a committee week in the European Parliament.  Members of the European Parliament (“MEPs”) are expected to vote and debate on interesting matters.

On Tuesday, the Committee on International Trade (“INTA”) will vote on Recommendations for Opening of Trade Negotiations between the EU and the U.S.  In the draft motion for a resolution, prepared by MEP Bernd Lange (S&D, DE), it is recommended not to engage in trade negotiations since it believes that these negotiations will produce an outcome that is not in the interest of European citizens.  It stresses that the EU should not negotiate under threat – referring to the still-in-force steel and aluminum tariffs and the recent countervailing duties on Spanish olives.  Another major prospect is whether President Trump will introduce tariffs on automotives under Section 232.  He is considering to do so based on the forthcoming conclusions of the investigation of the Department of Commerce that are set to be published on Sunday, February 17, 2019.  See the draft recommendation here.

On Wednesday, the Parliament’s Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (“IMCO”) is expected to approve the compromise text agreed with the Council of the EU during trilogue negotiations on the Commission’s proposal for a Digital Content Directive.  The proposal seeks to expand the protection of consumers who are required to disclose data as a condition for the supply of “digital goods”.  The proposed directive also strives to make sure that the so-called “free services” are subject to the same protection for the consumers when they do not pay a monetary price for a service or for content.

On the same day, IMCO is expected to vote on the compromise text, agreed in trilogue, on the Commission’s proposed Directive on the Online Sales of Goods.  This proposal, along with the proposed Digital Content Directive, form another pillar of the European Commission’s Digital Single Market Strategy (“DSM”).  They aim to tackle the challenges to cross-border e-commerce in the EU, including fragmentation of the legal regimes in the EU that made it problematic for SMEs to conduct business across borders, and the low level of consumer trust when buying online from another EU Member State.

Meetings and Agenda

Monday, February 18, 2019 

Joint meeting: Committee on Agriculture and Rural and Committee on

17:00 – 18:30

Development

  • Exchange of views with Catherine Geslain-Lanéelle, candidate for the position of Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

Committee on Legal Affairs

15:00 – 18:30

  • See the draft agenda here

Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs

15:00 – 18:30

Joint debate with Members of the Foreign Affairs, Development and International Trade committees invited (15:00 – 15:45)

  • Elements towards an EU Strategy against illicit Firearms, Small Arms & Light Weapons and their Ammunition “Securing Arms, Protecting Citizens” (Joint communication to the Parliament and the Council) and Council Decision (“CFSP”) 2018/1789 of 19 November 2018 in support of combating the illicit trade in and proliferation of small arms and light weapons in the Member States of the League of Arab States (“EU SALW Strategy”) – presentation by Laurent Muschel, Director, DG HOME, European Commission and Jacek Bylica, Principal Advisor and Special Envoy for Non-proliferation and Disarmament, European External Action Service (“EEAS”). 

Special committee on financial crimes, tax evasion and tax avoidance /Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs

17:50 – 19:00

Joint session with National Parliaments

  • The Special committee on financial crimes, tax evasion and tax avoidance (“TAX3”) will participate in an inter-parliamentary committee meeting with the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (“ECON”) in the context of this year’s European Parliamentary Week, which will take place on 18 – 19 February 2019.

Tuesday, February 19, 2019 

Committee on International Trade

09:00 – 12:30

Votes

  • Implementation of the GSP Regulation No 978/2012 – Voting on amendment PE632.690.
    • Rapporteur: Fjellner CHRISTOFER (PPE, SE)
  • Recommendations for the opening of trade negotiations between the EU and the US.
    • Rapporteur: Lange BERND (S&D, DE)
  • Voluntary partnership between the EU and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on forest law enforcement, governance, and trade.
    • Rapporteur: Heidei HAUTALA (Greens/EFA, FI)
  • The role of domestic Advisory Groups in monitoring the implementation of Free Trade Agreements – Presentation of the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee.
  • Conclusion of the Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community. 

Committee on Employment and Social Affairs

09:30 – 10:45

Debates

  • Establishing contingency measures in the field of social security coordination following the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union – Consideration of draft report, Consideration of amendments. 

Votes

  • Transparent and predictable working conditions in the European Union – Vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Enribque CALVET CHAMBON (ALDE, ES)
  • Establishing a European Labour Authority – Vote on the provisional agreement resulting from interinstitutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Jeroen LENAERS (EPP, NL) 

Committee on Industry, Research and Energy

09:00 – 18:30

Votes (10:30 – 12:30) 

  • Labelling of tyres with respect to fuel efficiency and other essential parameters
    • Rapporteur: Michał BONI (EPP, PL)
    • Establishing the European Cybersecurity Industrial, Technology and Research Competence Centre and the Network of National Coordination Centres (COD)
    • Rapporteur: Julia REDA (Greens/EFA, DE)
  • Re-use of public sector information (recast) (COD) – Vote on the provisional agreement resulting from interinstitutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Neoklis SYLIKIOTIS (GUE/NGL, CY)
  • European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy (RSP) – Vote on a questions for oral answer to the Council and the Commission and vote on a of motion for a resolution Workshop on ‘Just energy transition,  opportunity for EU industries – The role of hydrogen in the future – The example of energy transition in Germany.’

(14.30 – 18.30)

  • Public hearing on ‘Connectivity of the digital future’
  • Renewable Energy Directive, Presentation of (draft) delegated act by the European Commission 

Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development

09:00 – 12:30

  • Discontinuing seasonal changes of time (COD) adoption of draft opinion.
    • Rapporteur: Ulrike Müller (ALDE, DE) 

Committee on Fisheries

09:30 – 18:30

Votes

  • Fishing in the GFCM (General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean) Agreement area (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from interinstitutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur Linnéa Engström (Greens/EFA, SE) .
  • Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on a multiannual recovery plan for Mediterranean swordfish and amending Regulations (EC) No 1967/2006 and (EU) 2017/2107 (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur Marco Affronte (Greens/EFA, IT).
  • Establishing a multi-annual plan for the fisheries exploiting demersal stocks in the western Mediterranean Sea (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur Clara Eugenia Aguilera García (S&D, ES).
  • Proposal for a regulation laying down conservation and control measures applicable in the Regulatory Area of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur Ricardo Serrão Santos (S&D, PT).
  • Rules relating to the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund by reason of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union (COD) – exchange of views with Commission  representatives.
  • Fishing authorizations for Union fishing vessels in United Kingdom waters and fishing operations of United Kingdom fishing vessels in Union waters (COD) – exchange of views with Commission representatives.
  • Public Hearing on “First evaluations following the full implementation of the landing obligation in January 2019.” 

Committee on Legal Affairs

09:00 – 18:30

Votes (10:00-10:30)

  • Discontinuing season changes of time (COD) -adoption of amendments on draft opinion.
    • Rapporteur Pavel SVOBODA (EPP, CZ)
  • Copyright in the Digital Single Market (COD) – reporting back to committee on the negotiations (Rule 69f(3) and vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations (possibly).
    • Rapporteur Axel VOSS (EPP, DE)
  • Petition No. 0186/2018 by Pier Paolo Volpe (Italian) on the discretionary powers of the Commission with regard to the application of EU law by the Member States – adoption.
    • Rapporteur Pavel SVOBODA (EPP, CZ) 

Debates (10:30 – 12:30) 

Reporting back to committee on the negotiations (Rule 69f(3) for each of the following

  • Adapting a number of legal acts providing for the use of the regulatory procedure with scrutiny to Articles 290 and 291 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (COD).
    • Rapporteur: József SZÁJER (EPP, HU)
  • Supplementary protection certificate for medicinal products (COD).
    • Rapporteur: Luis de GRANDES PASCUAL (EPP, ES)
  • Use of digital tools and processes in company law (COD).
    • Rapporteur: Tadeusz ZWIEFKA (EPP, PL)
  • Cross-border conversions, mergers and divisions (COD).
    • Rapporteur: Evelyn REGNER (S&D, AT)
  • Protection of persons reporting on breaches of Union law (COD).
    • Rapporteur: Virginie ROZIÈRE (S&D, FR)

Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs

09:00 – 18:30

Joint debate with Members of Development Committee invited (10.00-11.15)

  • Exchange of views with Dimitrios VITSAS, Greek Minister for Migration Policy on challenges in the field of migration and asylum from a frontline Member State perspective and ongoing reforms at EU level.

Votes (11:15 – 12:30)

  • Implementing decision on the launch of automated data exchange with regard to DNA data in the United Kingdom (CNS) – vote on simplified procedure (Rule 50(1) – without amendment) report.
    • Rapporteur: Branislav ŠKRIPEK (ECR)
  • Arrangement with Norway, Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein: participation in the European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice (NLE) – vote on simplified procedure (Rule 50(1) – without amendment) report.
    • Rapporteur: Monica MACOVEI (ECR, RO)
  • Resolution on the activities of the Working Group with a general mandate to monitor the situation as regards rule of law and fight against corruption within the EU and address specific situations, in particular Malta and Slovakia (ROLMG) (RSP) – adoption of motion for a resolution.
    • Rapporteur: Sophia IN ‘T VELD (ALDE, NL)
  • Council of Europe Convention on an integrated safety, security, and service approach at football matches and other sports events (CETS No 218): authorizing Member States to become party (NLE) – adoption of draft report.
    • Rapporteur: Sylvia-Yvonne KAUFMANN (S&D, DE)
  • Marketing and use of explosives precursors (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Andrejs MAMIKINS (S&D, LV)
  • Establishing a Community Code on Visas (Visa Code) (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Juan Fernando López AGUILAR (S&D, ES)
  • Establishing the Internal Security Fund (COD) – adoption of draft report and vote on the decision to enter into inter-institutional negotiations and on the composition of the negotiating team.
    • Rapporteur: Monika HOHLMEIER (EPP, DE)
  • Establishing, as part of the Integrated Border Management Fund, the instrument for financial support for border management and visa (COD) – adoption of draft report and vote on the decision to enter into inter-institutional negotiations and on the composition of the negotiating team.
    • Rapporteur: Tanja FAJON (S&D, SI)
  • Establishing the Asylum and Migration Fund (COD) – adoption of draft report and vote on the decision to enter into inter-institutional negotiations and on the composition of the negotiating team.
    • Rapporteur: Miriam DALLI (S&D, MT)
  • Interoperability between EU information systems (borders and visa) (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Jeroen LENAERS (EPP, NL)
  • Interoperability between EU information systems (police and judicial cooperation, asylum and migration) (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Nuno MELO (EPP, PT)

Debate with Security Union Commissioner (17:00 – 18:30)

  • Fifth Security Dialogue with Commissioner Julian KING, Commissioner for the Security Union. 

Special committee on financial crimes, tax evasion and tax avoidance

17:30 – 19:30

  • Exchange of views with Margrethe VESTAGER, Member of the European Commission responsible for Competition.
  • Exchange of views with María Jesús MONTERO CUADRADO, Minister of the Treasury of the Kingdom of Spain.

 Wednesday, February 20, 2019 

Committee on Budgetary Control

09:00 – 18:30

  • Discharge 2017: Presentation of the Council recommendations by the Romanian Council Presidency, Luminița ODOBESCU, Ambassador 

Electronic vote

  • Discharge 2017: General budget of the EU – European Commission (DEC) – adoption of draft report.
    • Rapporteur: Inés AYALA SENDER (S&D, ES)
  • Discharge 2017: Court of Auditors’ special reports (DEC) – adoption of draft report.
    • Rapporteur: Inés AYALA SENDER (S&D, ES)
  • Discharge 2017: General budget of the EU – European Parliament (DEC) – adoption of draft report.
    • Rapporteur: Claudia SCHMIDT (EPP, AT)
  • 2017 discharge: General budget of the EU – 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th EDFs (DEC) – adoption of draft report
    • Rapporteur: Marco VALLI (EFDD, IT) 

Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs

09:00 – 11:30

ECON-ENVI Joint meeting (09:00 – 10:00)

  • Establishment of the European Monetary Fund (APP) – Vote on a report.
    • Rapporteurs: Vladimír Maňka (S&D, SK) and Pedro Silva Pereira (S&D, PT) 

Votes (10:45 – 11:00)

  • Commission Delegated Regulation amending Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the list of exempted entities (DEA) – Vote on Recommendation for “early non-objection.”
  • Commission Delegated Regulation amending Regulation (EU) 2015/2365 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the list of exempted entities (DEA) – Vote on Recommendation for “early non-objection.”
  • Commission Delegated Regulation amending Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/522 as regards the exemption of the Bank of England and the United Kingdom Debt Management Office from the scope of Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 (DEA) – Vote on Recommendation for “early non-objection.”
  • Commission Delegated Regulation amending Delegated Regulation (EU) 2017/1799 as regards the exemption of the Bank of England from the pre- and post-trade transparency requirements in Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 (DEA) – Vote on Recommendation for “early non-objection.”

ECON-BUDG Joint meeting (11:00 – 11:30)

  • Establishment of the European Monetary Fund (APP) – Vote on a report.
    • Rapporteurs: Vladimír Maňka (S&D, SKand Pedro Silva Pereira (S&D, PT) 

Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety

09:00-18:30

Debates

  • Exchange of views with Ms Elżbieta BIEŃKOWSKA, European Commissioner for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs on Follow-up to the Inquiries of the Committee on Emission Measurements in the Automotive Sector (EMIS) recommendations under ENVI remit.
  • Exchange of views with the Commission on the Draft delegated act on supplementing Directive (EU) 2018/2001 as regards the determination of high indirect land-use change-risk feedstock for which a significant expansion of the production area into land with high carbon stock is observed and the certification of low indirect landuse change-risk biofuels, bioliquids and biomass fuels.

Votes

  • Transparency and sustainability of the EU risk assessment in the food chain – Vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations (to be confirmed)
    • Rapporteur: Pilar AYUSO (EPP, ES)
  • Objection pursuant to Rule 106: genetically modified maize 4114 (DP-ØØ4114-3) (D060242) – adoption of motion for a resolution.
    • Co-rapporteurs: Bart STAES (Greens/EFA, BE), Guillaume BALAS (S&D, FR), Lynn BOYLAN (GUE/NGL, IE), Eleonora EVI (EFDD, IT), Sirpa PIETIKÄINEN (EPP, FI), Valentinas MAZURONIS (ALDE, LT)
  • Objection au titre de l’article 106: maïs génétiquement modifié MON 87411 (MON-87411-9) (D060243) – adoption de la proposition de résolution.
    • Corapporteurs: Bart STAES (Greens/EFA, BE), Guillaume BALAS (S&D, FR), Lynn BOYLAN (GUE/NGL, IE), Eleonora EVI (EFDD, IT), Sirpa PIETIKÄINEN (EPP, FI), Valentinas MAZURONIS (ALDE, LT)
  • Objection pursuant to Rule 106: genetically modified maize Bt11 × MIR162 ×1507 × GA21 and sub-combinations Bt11 × MIR162 × 1507, MIR162 × 1507 ×GA21 and MIR162 × 507 (D060244) – Adoption of motion for a resolution.
    • Corapporteurs: Bart STAES (Greens/EFA, BE), Guillaume BALAS (S&D, FR), Lynn BOYLAN (GUE/NGL, IE), Eleonora EVI (EFDD, IT), Sirpa PIETIKÄINEN (EPP, FI), Valentinas MAZURONIS (ALDE, LT)
  • Objection pursuant to Rule 106: Active substances including thiacloprid (D060042) – Adoption of motion for a resolution.
    • Co-rapporteurs: Sylvie GODDYN (EFDD, FR), Karin KADENBACH (S&D, AT), Frédérique RIES (ALDE, BE), Michèle RIVASI (Greens/EFA, FR), Anja HAZEKAMP (GUE/NGL, NL)
  • Objection pursuant to Rule 106: maximum residue levels for several substances including clothianidin (D059754-02) – Adoption of motion for a resolution.
    • Corapporteurs: Michèle RIVASI (Greens/EFA, FR), Angélique DELAHAYE (EPP, FR), Karin KADENBACH (S&D, AT), Frédérique RIES (ALDE, BE), Anja HAZEKAMP (GUE/NGL, NL), Sylvie GODDYN (EFDD, FR)
  • Strategy for long-term EU greenhouse gas emissions reduction in accordance with the Paris Agreement – adoption of motion for a resolution.
    • Co-rapporteurs: Peter LIESE (EPP, DE), Jytte GUTELAND (S&D, SV), Nils TORVALDS (ALDE, FI), Lynn BOYLAN (GUE/NGL, IE), Bas EICKHOUT (Greens/EFA, NL), Eleonora EVI (EFDD, IT)
  • Discontinuing seasonal changes of time – adoption of draft opinion.
    • Rapporteur for opinion: Bolesław G. PIECHA (ECR, PL) 

Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection

14:30-16:30

Debates

  • Exchange of views with Pierre MOSCOVICI, Commissioner responsible for Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs 

Votes (Joint with JURI)

  • Contracts for the supply of digital content – Vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteurs: Evelyne GEBHARDT (S&D, DE), Axel VOSS (EPP, DE)
  • Contracts for the online and other distance sales of goods – Vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Pascal ARIMONT (EPP, BE)

Joint meeting Internal Market and Consumer Protection and Legal Affairs

committees

15:45 – 16:00

Vote

  • Contracts for the supply of digital content (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Co-rapporteurs: Evelyne GEBHARDT (S&D, DE) and Axel VOSS (EPP, DE) 

Committee on Regional Development

09:00 – 12:30

  • Study commissioned by Policy Department B, “Research for REGI Committee – Digital Agenda and Cohesion Policy” – Presentation by Julie Pellegrin, lead researcher, CSIL.

Committee on Culture and Education

09:00 – 12:30

Votes

  • Erasmus’: the Union programme for education, training, youth and sport (COD) – adoption of draft report.
    • Rapporteur: Milan Zver (EPP, SI)
  • Establishing the Creative Europe programme (2021 to 2027) (COD) – adoption of draft report.
    • Rapporteur: Silvia Costa (S&D, IT) 

Committee on Constitutional Affairs

15:30 – 17:30

Debates

  • The withdrawal of the UK from the European Union – state of play – exchange of views and update by the Chair (15:45 – 16:15)
  • MFF Regulation and Own Resources – update on developments (17:00) 

Committee on Petitions

09:00 – 18:30

Vote

Seasonal changes of time Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament

  • and of the Council on discontinuing seasonal changes of time and repealing Directive 2000/84/EC, COM(2018)639 (2018/0332(COD)) (for TRAN), adoption of draft opinion.
    • Rapporteur Cecilia Wikström (ALDE, SE) 

Debates

  • Fact-finding Visit to Donana National Park, Andalucia, Spain – consideration of a draft FFV report.
  • Petitions: Taxation US’ Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act’s (FATCA) alleged infringement of EU rights and the extraterritorial effects of US laws in the EU (in the presence of the petitioner) Justice: investigation of the murder of the Slovak journalist Ján Kuciak and his fiancée Martina Kušnírova (in the presence of the petitioner) Fundamental rights: whistle-blower protection in Romania (possibly in the presence of the petitioner) Employment: fixed-term contracts for primary school teachers in Greece (in the presence of the petitioner) Environment: misuse of ERDF funds in fire-fighting operations in Galicia Environment nuclear energy: several petitions from Germany and Spain (in the presence of the petitioner) Water pollution: protection of the quality of groundwater resources in Vereknye / Vrakuňa (in the presence of the petitioner) Animal welfare: calling for the adoption of a specific legislation for the protection and management of companion, domestic and stray animals inside the EU and on the protection of the Italian wolf.
  • Presentation of the update of the Study on Liability and cross-border legal implications of nuclear energy in the EU” commissioned by Policy Department C for the Committee on Petitions by Prof. Michael Faure, Universities of Maastricht and Rotterdam. 

Committee on Transport and Tourism

09:00 – 12:30

  • Exchange of views with Romanian Minister of Tourism, Mr Bogdan TRIF, on Romanian Presidency priorities. 

Votes

  • Time limit for the implementation of the special rules regarding maximum length in case of cabs delivering improved aerodynamic performance, energy efficiency and safety performance (COD) – vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Karima Delli (Greens/EFA, FR)
  • Protocol amending the Agreement on Maritime Transport between the European Community and China to take account of the accession of Croatia to the European Union (COD) – adoption of draft recommendation (consent).
    • Rapporteur: Francisco Assis (S&D, PT)
  • Exchange of views with EMSA newly appointed Executive Director, Ms Maja MARKOVČIĆ KOSTELAC 

Thursday, February 21, 2019 

Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection

09:00 – 12:30

Debates

  • Exchange of views with Commissioner Elżbieta BIEŃKOWSKA, responsible for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs.
  • Exchange of views with Mariya GABRIEL, Commissioner responsible for Communications Networks, Content and Technology. 

Votes

  • Prolongation of the transitional use of means other than the electronic dataprocessing techniques provided for in the Union Customs Code – Vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Jasenko SELIMOVIC (ALDE, SV)
  • Type-approval requirements for motor vehicles and their trailers, and systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles, as regards their general safety and the protection of vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users. Adoption of draft report, Vote on the decision to enter into inter-institutional negotiations.
    • Rapporteur: Róża Gräfin von THUN UND HOHENSTEIN (EPP, PL)
  • Promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online intermediation services – Vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations (tbc).
    • Rapporteur: Christel SCHALDEMOSE (S&D, DA)
  • Rules and procedures for compliance with and enforcement of Union harmonization legislation on products – Vote on the provisional agreement resulting from inter-institutional negotiations (tbc).
    • Rapporteur: Nicola DANTI (S&D, IT) 

Committee on Petitions

09:00 – 12:30

Debates

  • Fact-finding visits: follow up on visits to London (5-6.11.2015), Ebro and Tajo rivers (8-10.02.2016), Slovakia (22-23.09.2016) and Sweden (20-21.02.2017).
  • Petitions: Environment: several petitions from Italy Financial services: petitions from Bulgaria, Spain, Italy Environment: several petitions from Italy Financial services: petitions from Bulgaria, Spain, Italy.