According to a study conducted by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), there was a 20% decrease in enacted immigration laws and resolutions in the first half of 2012, as compared to the first half of 2011. During the first half of 2012, 41 states enacted 114 bills and 92 resolutions relating to immigration; in contrast, there were 257 laws and resolutions enacted in the first half of 2011. The main factor causing this decrease likely was the uncertainty prior to the U.S. Supreme Court’s long-awaited decision on the Arizona immigration laws. Now that the Court has clarified the extent to which states can regulate immigration issues, the stage is being set for immigration reform in 2013. Washington State Representative Sharon Tomiko Santos, Co-Chair of the NCSL Immigration and the States Task Force, commented: “Whoever is elected president will need to work with both parties in Congress and address this issue. The can has been kicked down the road for too long, and states have suffered as a result. Come January, action at the federal level needs to happen.”