At a conference in Lisbon on 9 and 10 November 2007, Competition Commissioner Neelie Kroes and Commissioner for Consumer Protection, Meglena Kuneva gave speeches on the possibility of collective redress under EU law. Commissioner Kroes highlighted the difficulties experienced by consumers and businesses trying to bring private enforcement against undertakings that have breached articles 81 and 82 EC. One of the perceived gaps of enforcement is the lack of an effective system of collective redress in most national judicial systems within the EU. The Competition Directorate-General’s long-awaited White Paper on private enforcement is due to be published by the Commission in early 2008 and is expected to include consideration of collective redress. The issue of access to a collective redress system is also currently a hotly debated issue in relation to breaches of consumer law. Commissioner Kuneva, was keen to emphasise that collective redress systems in the EU would not equate to the US class action system. She discussed the types of ‘benchmarks’ or standards that Member States would be required to respect in introducing collective redress systems for consumers in their jurisdictions.